The Sacred BibleThe Prophecy of Daniel
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
[Daniel 1]

{1:1} Anno tertio regni Ioakim regis Iuda, venit Nabuchodonosor rex Babylonis in Ierusalem, et obsedit eam.
{1:1} In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it.

{1:2} Et tradidit Dominus in manu eius Ioakim regem Iuda, et partem vasorum domus Dei: et asportavit ea in terram Sennaar in domum dei sui, et vasa intulit in domum Thesauri dei sui.
{1:2} And the Lord delivered into his hand Jehoiakim the king of Judah and a portion of the vessels of the house of God. And he carried them away into the land of Shinar, to the house of his god, and he brought the vessels into the treasure chamber of his god.

{1:3} Et ait rex Asphenez præposito Eunuchorum ut introduceret de filiis Israel, et de semine regio et tyrannorum,
{1:3} And the king told Ashpenaz, the chief of the eunuchs, that he should bring in some of the sons of Israel, and some of the offspring of the king and of the sovereigns:

~ The word tyrannorum could also be translated as tyrants, but in this context it does not seem to refer to tyrannical leaders. The word tyrannorum probably refers to various rulers conquered and subjugated by the king, as opposed to leaders who are part of this king’s own administration. It is interesting that the term “sons” is used to refer to those of Israel, whereas “offspring” is used, perhaps in a somewhat derogatory manner, to refer to the others.

{1:4} pueros, in quibus nulla esset macula, decoros forma, et eruditos omni sapientia, cautos scientia, et doctos disciplina, et qui possent stare in palatio regis, ut doceret eos litteras, et linguam Chaldæorum.
{1:4} young men, in whom there was no blemish, noble in appearance, and accomplished in all wisdom, cautious in knowledge, and well-educated, and who could stand in the palace of the king, so that he might teach them the letters and the language of the Chaldeans.

{1:5} Et constituit eis rex annonam per singulos dies de cibis suis, et de vino unde bibebat ipse, ut enutriti tribus annis, postea starent in conspectu regis.
{1:5} And the king appointed for them provisions for each day, from his own food and from the wine which he himself drank, so that, after being nourished for three years, they would stand in the sight of the king.

{1:6} Fuerunt ergo inter eos de filiis Iuda, Daniel, Ananias, Misael, et Azarias.
{1:6} Now, among those of the sons of Judah, there were Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah.

{1:7} Et imposuit eis præpositus eunuchorum, nomina: Danieli, Baltassar: Ananiæ, Sidrach: Misaeli, Misach: et Azariæ, Abdenago.
{1:7} And the chief of the eunuchs assigned names to them: to Daniel, Belteshazzar; to Hananiah, Shadrach; to Mishael, Meshach; and to Azariah, Abednego.

{1:8} Proposuit autem Daniel in corde suo ne pollueretur de mensa regis, neque de vino potus eius: et rogavit eunuchorum præpositum ne contaminaretur.
{1:8} But Daniel resolved in his heart that he would not be polluted with the king’s meal, nor with the wine he drank, and he requested of the chief of the eunuchs that he might not be contaminated.

{1:9} Dedit autem Deus Danieli gratiam et misericordiam in conspectu principis eunuchorum.
{1:9} And so God gave Daniel grace and mercy in the sight of the leader of the eunuchs.

~ Notice that the chief of the eunuchs “præpositus eunuchorum” is different from the leader of the eunuchs “principis eunuchorum.” The leader of the eunuchs seems to be a step down from the chief of the eunuchs.

{1:10} Et ait princeps eunuchorum ad Danielem: Timeo ego dominum meum regem, qui constituit vobis cibum et potum: qui si viderit vultus vestros macilentiores præ ceteris adolescentibus coævis vestris, condemnabitis caput meum regi.
{1:10} And the leader of the eunuchs said to Daniel, “I am afraid of my lord the king, who has appointed food and drink for you, who, if he should see that your faces are leaner than those of the other youths your age, you would condemn my head to the king.”

{1:11} Et dixit Daniel ad Malasar, quem constituerat princeps eunuchorum super Danielem, Ananiam, Misaelem, et Azariam:
{1:11} And Daniel said to Malasar, whom the leader of the eunuchs had appointed over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah,

~ Malasar is sometimes replaced in translations with “steward”. He seems to be two steps down in rank, that is, one step down from the leader, and another step down from the chief eunuch. Daniel begins with one of the lowest ranks in this society, as one of the captive sons of Israel. He then moves up to a position akin to that of a student, but he still cannot approach the chief of the eunuchs directly. He must plead his case through intermediaries.

{1:12} Tenta nos obsecro servos tuos diebus decem, et dentur nobis legumina ad vescendum, et aqua ad bibendum:
{1:12} “I beg you to test us, your servants, for ten days, and let roots be given to us to eat and water to drink,

The word legumina resembles the English word legume, but is often translated more generally as vegetables. In this case, roots was chosen for the translation of legumina out of deference to the Douay-Rheims translation “let pulse be given us to eat.” Pulse refers to vegetable roots, (somewhat different from our potatoes) which must be beaten as part of their preparation. It is unlikely that these young men in training, captives from a war, having rejected the king’s own food and wine, would be given food as desirable as a variety of fresh vegetables. Rather, they received easily stored vegetables, such as roots.

{1:13} et contemplare vultus nostros, et vultus puerorum, qui vescuntur cibo regio: et sicut videris, facies cum servis tuis.
{1:13} and then observe our faces, and the faces of the children who eat the king’s food, and then deal with your servants according to what you see.”

{1:14} Qui, audito sermone huiuscemodi, tentavit eos diebus decem.
{1:14} When he had heard these words, he tested them for ten days.

{1:15} Post dies autem decem apparuerunt vultus eorum meliores, et corpulentiores præ omnibus pueris, qui vescebantur cibo regio.
{1:15} But, after ten days, their faces appeared better and fatter than all the children who had eaten from the king’s food.

{1:16} Porro Malasar tollebat cibaria, et vinum potus eorum: dabatque eis legumina.
{1:16} Thereafter, Malasar took away their portions and their wine for drinking, and he gave them roots.

{1:17} Pueris autem his dedit Deus scientiam, et disciplinam in omni libro, et sapientia: Danieli autem intelligentiam omnium visionum et somniorum.
{1:17} Yet, to these children, God gave knowledge and instruction in every book, and wisdom, but to Daniel, also the understanding of all visions and dreams.

{1:18} Completis itaque diebus, post quos dixerat rex ut introducerentur: introduxit eos præpositus eunuchorum in conspectu Nabuchodonosor.
{1:18} And when the time was completed, after which the king had said that they would be brought in, the chief of the eunuchs brought them in before the sight of Nebuchadnezzar.

~ The chief of the eunuchs brings them in, not the leader of the eunuchs, and not Malasar.

{1:19} Cumque eis locutus fuisset rex, non sunt inventi tales de universis, ut Daniel, Ananias, Misael, et Azarias: et steterunt in conspectu Regis.
{1:19} And, when the king conversed with them, there had not been found any so great in all the world as Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah; and so they stood in the sight of the king.

{1:20} Et omne verbum sapientiæ et intellectus, quod sciscitatus est ab eis rex, invenit in eis decuplum super cunctos ariolos, et magos, qui erant in universo regno eius.
{1:20} And in every concept of wisdom and understanding, about which the king consulted with them, he found them to be ten times better than all the seers and astrologers put together, who were in his entire kingdom.

~ The word magos is the same word often translated in the Gospel of Matthew as Magi. In this case, it probably refers not merely to wise men or learned men, but those specializing in interpreting the stars, i.e., astrologers.

{1:21} Fuit autem Daniel usque ad annum primum Cyri regis.
{1:21} And so Daniel remained, even until the first year of king Cyrus.

[Daniel 2]

{2:1} In anno secundo regni Nabuchodonosor vidit Nabuchodonosor somnium, et conterritus est spiritus eius, et somnium eius fugit ab eo.
{2:1} In the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuchadnezzar saw a dream, and his spirit was terrified, and his dream fled from him.

~ Notice that this is the second year of Nebuchadnezzar, yet Daniel spent three years preparing to be chosen by Nebuchadnezzar. This is the second year counting from a different point in time, probably from the time that Daniel was chosen as one of the wise men of the kingdom, i.e., “In (Daniel’s) second year, during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar....”

{2:2} Præcepit autem rex, ut convocarentur arioli, et magi, et malefici, et Chaldæi: ut indicarent regi somnia sua: qui cum venissent, steterunt coram rege.
{2:2} Yet the king commanded that the seers, and the astrologers, and the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans be gathered together to reveal to the king his dreams. When they arrived, they stood in front of the king.

~ The word malefici, in this context, refers to those who practiced black magic. The word Chaldeans generally refers to an ancient Semitic people from Mesopotamia (particularly Babylonia). But the word can also refer to pagan priests who practice the occult. In this context, it probably refers to the most learned among the Chaldean people, many of whom may have had some knowledge of Chaldean occult practices.

{2:3} Et dixit ad eos rex: Vidi somnium: et mente confusus ignoro quid viderim.
{2:3} And the king said to them, “I saw a dream, and, being confused in mind, I do not know what I saw.”

{2:4} Responderuntque Chaldæi regi Syriace: Rex in sempiternum vive: dic somnium servis tuis, et interpretationem eius indicabimus.
{2:4} And the Chaldeans answered the king in Syriac, “O king, live forever. Tell the dream to your servants, and we will reveal its interpretation.”

{2:5} Et respondens rex ait Chaldæis: Sermo recessit a me: nisi indicaveritis mihi somnium, et coniecturam eius, peribitis vos, et domus vestræ publicabuntur.
{2:5} And in answer, the king said to the Chaldeans, “The memory of it has slipped away from me. Unless you reveal the dream to me, and its meaning, you will be put to death, and your houses will be confiscated.

~ The king has forgotten his dream. The word sermo means “word,” but can also refer to a concept or an idea or a plan or, as in this case, a memory.

{2:6} Si autem somnium, et coniecturam eius narraveritis, præmia, et dona, et honorem multum accipietis a me: somnium igitur, et interpretationem eius indicate mihi.
{2:6} But if you explain the dream and its meaning, you will receive from me rewards, and gifts, and great honor. Therefore, reveal to me the dream and its interpretation.”

{2:7} Responderunt secundo, atque dixerunt: Rex somnium dicat servis suis, et interpretationem illius indicabimus.
{2:7} They answered again and said, “Let the king tell the dream to his servants, and we will reveal its interpretation.”

{2:8} Respondit rex, et ait: Certe novi quod tempus redimitis, scientes quod recesserit a me sermo.
{2:8} The king answered and said, “I am certain that you are stalling for time because you know that the memory of it has slipped away from me.

~ Literally “tempus redimitis” means buying back time or recovering time, but the modern expression “stalling for time” is a fitting, slightly less literal, translation.

{2:9} Si ergo somnium non indicaveritis mihi, una est de vobis sententia, quod interpretationem quoque fallacem, et deceptione plenam composueritis, ut loquamini mihi donec tempus pertranseat. Somnium itaque dicite mihi, ut sciam quod interpretationem quoque eius veram loquamini.
{2:9} Therefore, if you do not reveal to me the dream, there is only one conclusion to be reached about you, that the interpretation is likewise false, and packed full of deception, so as to speak before me until the time passes away. And so, tell me the dream, so that I will also know that the interpretation that you tell me is likewise true.”

{2:10} Respondentes ergo Chaldæi coram rege, dixerunt: Non est homo super terram, qui sermonem tuum, rex, possit implere: sed neque regum quisquam magnus et potens verbum huiuscemodi sciscitatur ab omni ariolo, et mago, et Chaldæo.
{2:10} Then the Chaldeans answered before the king, and they said, “There is no man on earth who can accomplish your word, O king. For neither has any king, however great and mighty, asked for an answer of this kind from every seer, and astrologer, and Chaldean.

{2:11} Sermo enim, quem tu quæris, rex, gravis est: nec reperietur quisquam, qui indicet illum in conspectu regis: exceptis diis, quorum non est cum hominibus conversatio.
{2:11} For the answer that you seek, O king, is very difficult. Neither can anyone be found who can reveal it in the sight of the king, except the gods, whose conversation is not with men.”

{2:12} Quo audito, rex in furore, et in ira magna præcepit ut perirent omnes sapientes Babylonis.
{2:12} When he heard this, the king commanded, in fury and in great wrath, that all the wise men of Babylon should be destroyed.

{2:13} Et egressa sententia, sapientes interficiebantur: quærebanturque Daniel, et socii eius, ut perirent.
{2:13} And when the decree had gone forth, the wise men were put to death; and Daniel and his companions were sought, to be destroyed.

~ The verb “interficiebantur” does not merely mean to kill someone. It implies that the killing has been officially ordered or sanctioned, as in an execution, where a criminal is put to death. This word is not generally used to refer to murder.

{2:14} Tunc Daniel requisivit de lege, atque sententia ab Arioch principe militiæ regis, qui egressus fuerat ad interficiendos sapientes Babylonis.
{2:14} Then Daniel inquired, about the law and the sentence, of Arioch, the general of the king’s army, who had gone forth to execute the wise men of Babylon.

{2:15} Et interrogavit eum, qui a rege potestatem acceperat, quam ob causam tam crudelis sententia a facie regis esset egressa. Cum ergo rem indicasset Arioch Danieli,
{2:15} And he asked him, who had received the orders of the king, for what reason such a cruel sentence had gone forth from the face of the king. And so, when Arioch had revealed the matter to Daniel,

{2:16} Daniel ingressus rogavit regem ut tempus daret sibi ad solutionem indicandam regi.
{2:16} Daniel went in and asked of the king that he would grant him time to reveal the solution to the king.

{2:17} Et ingressus est domum suam, Ananiæque et Misaeli, et Azariæ sociis suis indicavit negotium:
{2:17} And he went into his house and explained the task to Hananiah, and Mishael, and Azariah, his companions,

{2:18} ut quærerent misericordiam a facie Dei cæli super sacramento isto, et non perirent Daniel, et socii eius cum ceteris sapientibus Babylonis.
{2:18} so that they would seek mercy before the face of the God of heaven, about this mystery, and so that Daniel and his companions might not perish with the other wise men of Babylon.

{2:19} Tunc Danieli mysterium per visionem nocte revelatum est: et benedixit Daniel Deum cæli,
{2:19} Then the secret was revealed to Daniel by a vision in the night. And Daniel blessed the God of heaven,

{2:20} et locutus ait: Sit nomen Domini benedictum a sæculo et usque in sæculum: quia sapientia et fortitudo eius sunt.
{2:20} and speaking aloud, he said, “May the name of the Lord be blessed by the present generation and forever; for wisdom and fortitude are his.

{2:21} Et ipse mutat tempora, et ætates: transfert regna, atque constituit: dat sapientiam sapientibus, et scientiam intelligentibus disciplinam:
{2:21} And he alters the times and the ages. He takes away kingdoms and he establishes them. He gives wisdom to those who are wise and teaching skills to those who understand.

~ The words “scientiam disciplinam” means the skill or knowledge used in teaching; whereas “intelligentibus” means “the understanding” or “those who understand.” The phrase “tempora et ætates” more literally means “shorter periods of time and longer periods of time.”

{2:22} Ipse revelat profunda, et abscondita, et novit in tenebris constituta: et lux cum eo est.
{2:22} He reveals deep and hidden things, and he knows what has been established in darkness. And the light is with him.

{2:23} Tibi Deus patrum nostrorum confiteor, teque laudo: quia sapientiam, et fortitudinem dedisti mihi: et nunc ostendisti mihi quæ rogavimus te, quia sermonem regis aperuisti nobis.
{2:23} To you, God of our fathers, I confess, and you, I praise. For you have given wisdom and fortitude to me, and now you have revealed to me what we asked of you, for you have uncovered for us the king’s thoughts.”

{2:24} Post hæc Daniel ingressus ad Arioch, quem constituerat rex ut perderet sapientes Babylonis, sic ei locutus est: Sapientes Babylonis ne perdas: introduc me in conspectu regis, et solutionem regi narrabo.
{2:24} After this, Daniel went in to Arioch, whom the king had appointed to destroy the wise men of Babylon, and he spoke to him in this way, “Do not destroy the wise men of Babylon. Bring me in before the king, and I will explain the solution to the king.”

{2:25} Tunc Arioch festinus introduxit Danielem ad regem, et dixit ei: Inveni hominem de filiis transmigrationis Iuda, qui solutionem regi annunciet.
{2:25} Then Arioch quickly brought Daniel to the king, and he said to him, “I have found a man of the sons of the transmigration of Judah, who would announce the solution to the king.”

{2:26} Respondit rex, et dixit Danieli, cuius nomen erat Baltassar: Putasne vere potes mihi indicare somnium, quod vidi, et interpretationem eius?
{2:26} The king answered and said to Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, “Do you really think that you can reveal to me the dream that I saw and its interpretation?”

{2:27} Et respondens Daniel coram rege, ait: Mysterium, quod rex interrogat, sapientes, magi, arioli, et aruspices nequeunt indicare regi:
{2:27} And Daniel, facing the king, answered and said, “The secret that the king seeks, the wise men, the seers, and the soothsayers are unable to reveal to the king.

{2:28} Sed est Deus in cælo revelans mysteria, qui indicavit tibi rex Nabuchodonosor, quæ ventura sunt in novissimis temporibus. Somnium tuum, et visiones capitis tui in cubili tuo huiuscemodi sunt:
{2:28} But there is a God in heaven who reveals mysteries, who has revealed to you, king Nebuchadnezzar, what will happen in the latter times. Your dream and the visions of your head upon your bed, are such as these.

{2:29} Tu rex cogitare cœpisti in strato tuo, quid esset futurum post hæc: et qui revelat mysteria, ostendit tibi quæ ventura sunt.
{2:29} You, O king, began to think, while in your blanket, about what will be hereafter. And he who reveals secrets showed you what will happen.

{2:30} Mihi quoque non in sapientia, quæ est in me plus quam in cunctis viventibus, sacramentum hoc revelatum est: sed ut interpretatio regi manifesta fieret, et cogitationes mentis tuæ scires.
{2:30} To me, likewise, this mystery is revealed, not according to the wisdom that is in me more than in other living things, but so that the interpretation might be made manifest to the king, and so that you may know the thoughts of your mind.

{2:31} Tu rex videbas, et ecce quasi statua una grandis: statua illa magna, et statura sublimis stabat contra te, et intuitus eius erat terribilis.
{2:31} You, O king, saw, and behold, something like a great statue. This statue, which was great and high, stood exalted above you, and you considered how terrible it was.

{2:32} Huius statuæ caput ex auro optimo erat, pectus autem et brachia de argento, porro venter, et femora ex ære:
{2:32} The head of this statue was of the finest gold, but the breast and the arms were of silver, and further on, the belly and the thighs were of brass;

{2:33} tibiæ autem ferreæ, pedum quædam pars erat ferrea, quædam autem fictilis.
{2:33} but the shins were of iron, a certain part of the feet were of iron and another part were of clay.

{2:34} Videbas ita, donec abscissus est lapis de monte sine manibus: et percussit statuam in pedibus eius ferreis, et fictilibus, et comminuit eos.
{2:34} And so you looked until a stone was broken off without hands from a mountain, and it struck the statue on its feet, which were of iron and clay, and it shattered them.

{2:35} Tunc contrita sunt pariter ferrum, testa, æs, argentum, et aurum, et redacta quasi in favillam æstivæ areæ, quæ rapta sunt vento: nullusque locus inventus est eis: lapis autem, qui percusserat statuam, factus est mons magnus, et implevit universam terram.
{2:35} Then the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold were crushed together and diminished like the ashes of a summer courtyard, and they were quickly taken away by the wind, and no place was found for them; but the stone that struck the statue became a great mountain and filled the whole earth.

{2:36} Hoc est somnium. Interpretationem quoque eius dicemus coram te, rex.
{2:36} This is the dream; we will also tell its interpretation before you, O king.

{2:37} Tu rex regum es: et Deus cæli, regnum, et fortitudinem, et imperium, et gloriam dedit tibi:
{2:37} You are a king among kings, and the God of heaven has given to you a kingdom, and fortitude, and power, and glory,

{2:38} et omnia, in quibus habitant filii hominum, et bestiæ agri: volucres quoque cæli dedit in manu tua, et sub ditione tua universa constituit: tu es ergo caput aureum.
{2:38} and all the places wherein the sons of men and the beasts of the field dwell. He has likewise given the flying creatures of the air into your hand, and he has placed all things under your realm. Therefore, you are the head of gold.

{2:39} Et post te consurget regnum aliud minus te argenteum: et regnum tertium aliud æreum, quod imperabit universæ terræ.
{2:39} And after you, another kingdom will rise up, inferior to you, of silver, and another third kingdom of brass, which will rule over the whole world.

{2:40} Et regnum quartum erit velut ferrum: quomodo ferrum comminuit, et domat omnia, sic comminuet, et conteret omnia hæc.
{2:40} And the fourth kingdom will be like iron. Just as iron shatters and conquers all things, so will it shatter and crush all these.

{2:41} Porro quia vidisti pedum, et digitorum partem testæ figuli, et partem ferream: regnum divisum erit, quod tamen de plantario ferri orietur, secundum quod vidisti ferrum mistum testæ ex luto.
{2:41} Furthermore, because you saw the feet and the toes to be part of potter’s clay and part of iron, the kingdom will be divided, but still, from the slip of iron it will take its origin, since you saw the iron mingled with the earthenware from clay.

{2:42} Et digitos pedum ex parte ferreos, et ex parte fictiles: ex parte regnum erit solidum, et ex parte contritum.
{2:42} And as the toes of the feet were partly of iron and partly of clay, part of the kingdom will be strong and part will be crushed.

{2:43} Quod autem vidisti ferrum mistum testæ ex luto, commiscebuntur quidem humano semine, sed non adhærebunt sibi, sicut ferrum misceri non potest testæ.
{2:43} Yet, because you saw the iron mingled with pottery from the earth, they will indeed be combined together with the offspring of man, but they will not adhere to one another, just as iron cannot be mixed with earthenware.

~ Man is made from the earth, that is why Daniel’s interpretation of earthenware and pottery from the earth speaks of the offspring of man. Iron mixed with earthenware symbolizes an unwise, and ultimately unworkable, mingling of some type of technology (iron) with human nature (earthenware).

{2:44} In diebus autem regnorum illorum suscitabit Deus cæli regnum, quod in æternum non dissipabitur, et regnum eius alteri populo non tradetur: comminuet autem, et consumet universa regna hæc: et ipsum stabit in æternum.
{2:44} But in the days of those kingdoms, the God of heaven will inspire a kingdom that will never be destroyed, and his kingdom will not be handed over to another people, and it will crush and will consume all these kingdoms, and this kingdom itself will stand in eternity.

{2:45} Secundum quod vidisti, quod de monte abscissus est lapis sine manibus, et comminuit testam, et ferrum, et æs, et argentum, et aurum, Deus magnus ostendit regi quæ ventura sunt postea: et verum est somnium, et fidelis interpretatio eius.
{2:45} In accordance with what you saw, because the stone was torn away from the mountain without hands, and it crushed the earthenware, and the iron, and the brass, and the silver, and the gold, the great God has shown the king what will happen after this. And the dream is true, and its interpretation is faithful.”

{2:46} Tunc rex Nabuchodonosor cecidit in faciem suam, et Danielem adoravit, et hostias, et incensum præcepit ut sacrificarent ei.
{2:46} Then king Nebuchadnezzar fell on his face and adored Daniel, and he commanded that they should offer in sacrifice to him victims and incense.

{2:47} Loquens ergo rex, ait Danieli: Vere Deus vester Deus deorum est, et Dominus regum, et revelans mysteria: quoniam tu potuisti aperire hoc sacramentum.
{2:47} And so the king spoke with Daniel and said, “Truly, your God is the God of gods, and Lord of kings, and also a revealer of secrets, since you could uncover this mystery.”

{2:48} Tunc rex Danielem in sublime extulit, et munera multa, et magna dedit ei: et constituit eum principem super omnes provincias Babylonis: et præfectum magistratuum super cunctos sapientes Babylonis.
{2:48} Then the king raised Daniel to a high rank and gave him many great gifts, and he appointed him as leader over all the provinces of Babylon and as chief of the magistrates over all the other wise men of Babylon.

{2:49} Daniel autem postulavit a rege: et constituit super opera provinciæ Babylonis, Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago: Ipse autem Daniel erat in foribus regis.
{2:49} However, Daniel required of the king that he appoint Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego over the works of the province of Babylon. But Daniel himself was at the king’s door.

[Daniel 3]

{3:1} Nabuchodonosor rex fecit statuam auream altitudine cubitorum sexaginta, latitudine cubitorum sex, et statuit eam in campo Dura provinciæ Babylonis.
{3:1} King Nebuchadnezzar made a statue of gold, sixty cubits high and six cubits wide, and he set it up in the plain of Dura in the province of Babylon.

{3:2} Itaque Nabuchodonosor rex misit ad congregandos satrapas, magistratus, et iudices, duces, et tyrannos, et præfectos, omnesque principes regionum, ut convenirent ad dedicationem statuæ, quam erexerat Nabuchodonosor rex.
{3:2} Then king Nebuchadnezzar sent to gather together the governors, magistrates and judges, generals and sovereigns and commanders, and all the leaders of the regions, to come together for the dedication of the statue, which king Nebuchadnezzar had raised.

{3:3} Tunc congregati sunt satrapæ, magistratus, et iudices, duces, et tyranni, et optimates, qui erant in potestatibus constituti, et universi principes regionum ut convenirent ad dedicationem statuæ, quam erexerat Nabuchodonosor rex. Stabant autem in conspectu statuæ, quam posuerat Nabuchodonosor rex:
{3:3} Then the governors, magistrates and judges, generals and sovereigns and nobles, who were appointed to power, and all the leaders of the regions were brought together so as to convene for the dedication of the statue, which king Nebuchadnezzar had raised. And so they stood before the statue that king Nebuchadnezzar had set up.

{3:4} et præco clamabat valenter: Vobis dicitur populis, tribubus, et linguis:
{3:4} And a herald proclaimed loudly, “To you it is said, to you peoples, tribes, and languages,

{3:5} In hora, qua audieritis sonitum tubæ, et fistulæ, et citharæ, sambucæ, et psalterii, et symphoniæ, et universi generis musicorum, cadentes adorate statuam auream, quam constituit Nabuchodonosor rex.
{3:5} that in the hour when you will hear the sound of the trumpet and the pipe and the lute, the harp and the psaltery, and of the symphony and every kind of music, you must fall down and adore the gold statue, which king Nebuchadnezzar has set up.

~ The list of the names of the musical instruments is somewhat modernized. In ancient times, the assortment of musical instruments would have been quite different from those of today.

{3:6} Si quis autem non prostratus adoraverit, eadem hora mittetur in fornacem ignis ardentis.
{3:6} But if anyone will not bow down and adore, in the same hour he will be cast into a furnace of burning fire.”

{3:7} Post hæc igitur statim ut audierunt omnes populi sonitum tubæ, fistulæ, et citharæ, sambucæ, et psalterii, et symphoniæ, et omnis generis musicorum: cadentes omnes populi, tribus, et linguæ adoraverunt statuam auream, quam constituerat Nabuchodonosor rex.
{3:7} After this, therefore, as soon as all the people heard the sound of the trumpet, the pipe and the lute, the harp and the psaltery, and of the symphony and every kind of music, all the peoples, tribes, and languages fell down and adored the gold statue, which king Nebuchadnezzar had set up.

{3:8} Statimque in ipso tempore accedentes viri Chaldæi accusaverunt Iudæos:
{3:8} And soon, about the same time, some influential Chaldeans came and accused the Jews,

~ These were not merely “homines,” men, but “viri,” that is, men of some influence.

{3:9} dixeruntque Nabuchodonosor regi: Rex in æternum vive:
{3:9} and they said to king Nebuchadnezzar, “O king, live forever.

{3:10} tu rex posuisti decretum, ut omnis homo, qui audierit sonitum tubæ, fistulæ, et citharæ, sambucæ, et psalterii, et symphoniæ, et universi generis musicorum, prosternat se, et adoret statuam auream:
{3:10} You, O king, have established a decree, so that every man who might hear the sound of the trumpet, the pipe and the lute, the harp and the psaltery, and of the symphony and every kind of music, will prostrate himself and adore the gold statue.

{3:11} si quis autem non procidens adoraverit, mittatur in fornacem ignis ardentis.
{3:11} But if any man will not fall down and adore, he would be cast into a furnace of burning fire.

{3:12} Sunt ergo viri Iudæi, quos constituisti super opera regionis Babylonis, Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago: viri isti contempserunt, rex, decretum tuum: deos tuos non colunt, et statuam auream, quam erexisti, non adorant.
{3:12} Yet there are influential Jews, whom you have appointed over the works of the region of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. These men, O king, have scorned your decree. They do not worship your gods, and they do not adore the gold statue which you have raised up.”

{3:13} Tunc Nabuchodonosor in furore, et in ira præcepit ut adducerentur Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago: qui confestim adducti sunt in conspectu regis.
{3:13} Then Nebuchadnezzar, in fury and in wrath, commanded that Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego should be brought, and so, without delay, they were brought before the king.

{3:14} Pronunciansque Nabuchodonosor rex, ait eis: Verene Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago deos meos non colitis, et statuam auream, quam constitui, non adoratis?
{3:14} And king Nebuchadnezzar addressed them and said, “Is it true, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, that you do not worship my gods, nor adore the gold statue, which I have set up?

{3:15} Nunc ergo si estis parati, quacumque hora audieritis sonitum tubæ, fistulæ, citharæ, sambucæ, et psalterii, et symphoniæ, omnisque generis musicorum, prosternite vos, et adorate statuam, quam feci: quod si non adoraveritis, eadem hora mittemini in fornacem ignis ardentis: et quis est Deus, qui eripiet vos de manu mea?
{3:15} Therefore, if you are prepared now, whenever you hear the sound of the trumpet, pipe, lute, harp and psaltery, and of the symphony and every kind of music, prostrate yourselves and adore the statue which I have made. But if you will not adore, in the same hour you will be cast into the furnace of burning fire. And who is the God that will rescue you from my hand?”

{3:16} Respondentes Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago, dixerunt regi Nabuchodonosor: Non oportet nos de hac re respondere tibi.
{3:16} Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego answered and said to king Nebuchadnezzar, “It is not right for us to obey you in this matter.

{3:17} Ecce enim Deus noster, quem colimus, potest eripere nos de camino ignis ardentis, et de manibus tuis, o rex, liberare.
{3:17} For behold our God, whom we worship, is able to rescue us from the oven of burning fire and to free us from your hands, O king.

{3:18} Quod si noluerit, notum sit tibi, rex, quia deos tuos non colimus, et statuam auream, quam erexisti, non adoramus.
{3:18} But even if he will not, let it be known to you, O king, that we will not worship your gods, nor adore the gold statue, which you have raised up.”

{3:19} Tunc Nabuchodonosor repletus est furore: et aspectus faciei illius immutatus est super Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago, et præcepit ut succenderetur fornax septuplum quam succendi consueverat.
{3:19} Then Nebuchadnezzar was filled with fury and the appearance of his face was changed against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, and he commanded that the furnace should be heated to seven times its usual fire.

{3:20} Et viris fortissimis de exercitu suo iussit ut ligatis pedibus Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago mitterent eos in fornacem ignis ardentis.
{3:20} And he ordered the strongest men of his army to bind the feet of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, and to cast them into the furnace of burning fire.

{3:21} Et confestim viri illi vincti cum braccis suis, et tiaris, et calceamentis, et vestibus missi sunt in medium fornacis ignis ardentis.
{3:21} And immediately these men were bound, and along with their coats, and their hats, and their shoes, and their garments, were cast into the middle of the furnace of burning fire.

~ The word braccis is translated by the Douay-Rheims as coats; however, the word could be bracis, meaning pants, especially in view of the subsequent verse (3:94), where pants are mentioned as being unaffected by the fire. On the other hand, braccis could refer to the arms, that is, to a covering for the arms, in which case “coats” would be an apt translation. Since a different word is used for pants in verse 94, and since the word “vestibus” would already include pants, coats seems to fit the context better.

{3:22} Nam iussio regis urgebat: fornax autem succensa erat nimis. Porro viros illos, qui miserant Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago, interfecit flamma ignis.
{3:22} But the king’s order was so urgent that the furnace was heated excessively. As a result, those men who had cast in Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, were killed by the flame of the fire.

{3:23} Viri autem hi tres, id est, Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago, ceciderunt in medio camino ignis ardentis, colligati.
{3:23} But these three men, that is, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, having been bound, fell down in the middle of the oven of burning fire.

{3:24} Et ambulabant in medio flammæ laudantes Deum, et benedicentes Domino.
{3:24} And they were walking in the midst of the flame, praising God and blessing the Lord.

{3:25} Stans autem Azarias oravit sic, aperiensque os suum in medio ignis, ait:
{3:25} Then Azariah, while standing, prayed in this manner, and opening his mouth in the midst of the fire, he said:

{3:26} Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum, et laudabile, et gloriosum nomen tuum in sæcula:
{3:26} “Blessed are you, O Lord, the God of our fathers, and your name is praiseworthy and glorious for all ages.

{3:27} quia iustus es in omnibus, quæ fecisti nobis, et universa opera tua vera, et viæ tuæ rectæ, et omnia iudicia tua vera.
{3:27} For you are just in all the things that you have accomplished for us, and all your works are true, and your ways are right, and all your judgments are true.

{3:28} Iudicia enim vera fecisti iuxta omnia, quæ induxisti super nos, et super civitatem sanctam patrum nostrorum Ierusalem: quia in veritate, et in iudicio induxisti omnia hæc propter peccata nostra.
{3:28} For you have made equally true judgments in all the things that you have brought upon us and upon Jerusalem, the holy city of our fathers. For in truth and in judgment, you have brought down all these things because of our sins.

{3:29} Peccavimus enim, et inique egimus recedentes a te, et deliquimus in omnibus:
{3:29} For we have sinned, and we have committed iniquity in withdrawing from you, and we have offended in all things.

{3:30} et præcepta tua non audivimus, nec observavimus, nec fecimus sicut præceperas nobis ut bene nobis esset.
{3:30} And we have not listened to your precepts, nor have we observed or done as you have ordered us, so that it might go well with us.

{3:31} Omnia ergo, quæ induxisti super nos, et universa, quæ fecisti nobis, in vero iudicio fecisti:
{3:31} Therefore, everything that you have brought upon us, and all that you have done for us, you have done in true judgment.

{3:32} et tradidisti nos in manibus inimicorum nostrorum iniquorum, et pessimorum, prævaricatorumque, et regi iniusto, et pessimo ultra omnem terram.
{3:32} And you have delivered us into the hands of our enemies: traitors, unjust and most wicked, and to a king, unjust and most wicked, even more so than all others on earth.

~ The word praevaricatorum is difficult to translate succinctly. It refers to one who is supposed to be an advocate or helper, but who colludes with ones enemies (perhaps secretly) instead; in other words, one who betrays trust. Traitor is a fairly close translation; prevaricator in English is too different in meaning from praevaricatorum.

{3:33} Et nunc non possumus aperire os: confusio, et opprobrium facti sumus servis tuis, et his, qui colunt te.
{3:33} And now we are not able to open our mouths. We have become a shame and a disgrace to your servants and to those who worship you.

{3:34} Ne, quæsumus, tradas nos in perpetuum propter nomen tuum, et ne dissipes testamentum tuum.
{3:34} Do not hand us over forever, we ask you, because of your name, and do not abolish your covenant.

{3:35} Neque auferas misericordiam tuam a nobis, propter Abraham dilectum tuum, et Isaac servum tuum, et Israel sanctum tuum:
{3:35} And do not withdraw your mercy from us, because of Abraham, your beloved, and Isaac, your servant, and Israel, your holy one.

{3:36} quibus locutus es pollicens quod multiplicares semen eorum sicut stellas cæli, et sicut arenam, quæ est in litore maris:
{3:36} You have spoken with them, promising that you would multiply their offspring like the stars of heaven and like the sand on the seashore.

{3:37} quia Domine imminuti sumus plus quam omnes gentes, sumusque humiles in universa terra hodie propter peccata nostra.
{3:37} For we, O Lord, are diminished more than all other peoples, and we are brought low throughout all the earth, this day, because of our sins.

{3:38} Et non est in tempore hoc princeps, et dux, et propheta, neque holocaustum, neque sacrificium, neque oblatio, neque incensum, neque locus primitiarum coram te,
{3:38} Neither is there, at this time, a leader, or a ruler, or a prophet, nor any holocaust, or sacrifice, or oblation, or incense, or place of first fruits, in your eyes,

{3:39} ut possimus invenire misericordiam tuam: sed in animo contrito, et spiritu humilitatis suscipiamur.
{3:39} so that we may be able to find your mercy. Nevertheless, with a contrite soul and humble spirit, let us be accepted.

{3:40} Sicut in holocausto arietum, et taurorum, et sicut in millibus agnorum pinguium: sic fiat sacrificium nostrum in conspectu tuo hodie, ut placeat tibi: quoniam non est confusio confidentibus in te.
{3:40} Just as in the holocausts of rams and bullocks, and as in thousands of fat lambs, so let our sacrifice be in your sight this day, in order to please you. For there is no shame for those who trust in you.

{3:41} Et nunc sequimur te in toto corde, et timemus te, et quærimus faciem tuam.
{3:41} And now we follow you wholeheartedly, and we fear you, and we seek your face.

{3:42} Nec confundas nos: sed fac nobiscum iuxta mansuetudinem tuam, et secundum multitudinem misericordiæ tuæ.
{3:42} Do not put us to shame, but deal with us in agreement with your clemency and according to the multitude of your mercies.

{3:43} Et erue nos in mirabilibus tuis, et da gloriam nomini tuo Domine:
{3:43} And rescue us by your wonders and give glory to your name, O Lord.

{3:44} et confundantur omnes, qui ostendunt servis tuis mala, confundantur in omni potentia tua, et robur eorum conteratur:
{3:44} And let all those be confounded who lead your servants towards evil. May they be confounded by all your power and may their strength be crushed.

{3:45} et sciant quia tu es Dominus Deus solus, et gloriosus super orbem terrarum.
{3:45} And may they know that you are the Lord, the only God, and glorious above the world.”

{3:46} Et non cessabant qui miserant eos ministri regis succendere fornacem, naphtha, et stuppa, et pice, et malleolis,
{3:46} And they did not cease, those attendants of the king who had cast them in, to heat the furnace with oil, and flax, and pitch, and brush.

~ Naphtha refers to any type of oil which comes from the ground, such as mineral oil or “rock oil;” stuppa refers to tow (coarse flax which is used for spinning) or, more generally, to the chaff leftover when the grain is removed from flax; pice is pitch or tar; malleolis is brush or, more generally, any kind of light kindling used for burning.

{3:47} et effundebatur flamma super fornacem cubitis quadraginta novem:
{3:47} And the flame streamed forth above the furnace for forty-nine cubits.

{3:48} et erupit, et incendit quos reperit iuxta fornacem de Chaldæis.
{3:48} And the fire erupted and burnt those of the Chaldeans within its reach near the furnace.

{3:49} Angelus autem Domini descendit cum Azaria, et sociis eius in fornacem: et excussit flammam ignis de fornace,
{3:49} But the angel of the Lord descended with Azariah and his companions into the furnace; and he cast the flame of the fire out of the furnace.

{3:50} et fecit medium fornacis quasi ventum roris flantem, et non tetigit eos omnino ignis, neque contristavit, nec quidquam molestiæ intulit.
{3:50} And he made the middle of the furnace like the blowing of a damp wind, and the fire did not touch them, nor afflict them, nor bother them at all.

{3:51} Tunc hi tres quasi ex uno ore laudabant, et glorificabant, et benedicebant Deum in fornace, dicentes:
{3:51} Then these three, as if with one voice, praised and glorified and blessed God, in the furnace, saying:

{3:52} Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum: et laudabilis, et gloriosus, et superexaltatus in sæcula: et benedictum nomen gloriæ tuæ sanctum: et laudabile, et superexaltatum in omnibus sæculis.
{3:52} “Blessed are you, Lord, God of our fathers: praiseworthy, and glorious, and exalted above all forever. And blessed is the holy name of your glory: praiseworthy, and exalted above all, for all ages.

{3:53} Benedictus es in templo sancto gloriæ tuæ: et superlaudabilis, et supergloriosus in sæcula.
{3:53} Blessed are you in the holy temple of your glory: praiseworthy above all and exalted above all forever.

{3:54} Benedictus es in throno regni tui: et superlaudabilis, et superexaltatus in sæcula.
{3:54} Blessed are you on the throne of your kingdom: praiseworthy above all and exalted above all forever.

{3:55} Benedictus es, qui intueris abyssos, et sedes super cherubim: et laudabilis, et superexaltatus in sæcula.
{3:55} Blessed are you who beholds the abyss and sits upon the cherubim: praiseworthy and exalted above all forever.

~ Or, who beholds the abyss even while sitting on the cherubims.

{3:56} Benedictus es in firmamento cæli: et laudabilis et gloriosus in sæcula.
{3:56} Blessed are you in the firmament of heaven: praiseworthy and glorious forever.

{3:57} Benedicite omnia opera Domini Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:57} All works of the Lord, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:58} Benedicite Angeli Domini Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:58} Angels of the Lord, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:59} Benedicite cæli Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:59} Heaven, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:60} Benedicite aquæ omnes, quæ super cælos sunt, Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:60} All waters that are above the heavens, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:61} Benedicite omnes virtutes Domini Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:61} All powers of the Lord, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:62} Benedicite sol, et luna Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:62} Sun and moon, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:63} Benedicite stellæ cæli Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:63} Stars of heaven, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:64} Benedicite omnis imber, et ros Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:64} Every rain and dew, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:65} Benedicite omnes spiritus Dei Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:65} Every breath of God, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

~ Spiritus can mean the breath of life within living things (but not the soul), or it can refer to wind or the air or breath from one’s mouth. In this case, a translation is used which permits multiple interpretations.

{3:66} Benedicite ignis, et æstus Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:66} Fire and steam, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:67} Benedicite frigus, et æstus Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:67} Cold and heat, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:68} Benedicite rores, et pruina Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:68} Dews and frost, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:69} Benedicite gelu, et frigus Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:69} Sleet and winter, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

~ Gelu can mean frost, ice, snow, icy or snowy weather, cold, or cold weather. In this case, since other types of cold are mentioned in other places (cold, frost, ice, snow), the translation “sleet” nicely combines “ice” and “snowy or icy weather” and “cold weather” in one word.

{3:70} Benedicite glacies, et nives Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:70} Ice and snow, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:71} Benedicite noctes, et dies Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:71} Nights and days, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:72} Benedicite lux, et tenebræ Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:72} Light and darkness, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:73} Benedicite fulgura, et nubes Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:73} Lightning and clouds, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:74} Benedicat terra Dominum: laudet et superexaltet eum in sæcula.
{3:74} May the land bless the Lord: and praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:75} Benedicite montes, et colles Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:75} Mountains and hills, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:76} Benedicite universa germinantia in terra Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:76} All things that grow in the land, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:77} Benedicite fontes Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:77} Fountains, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:78} Benedicite maria, et flumina Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:78} Seas and rivers, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:79} Benedicite cete, et omnia, quæ moventur in aquis, Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:79} Whales and all things that move in the waters, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:80} Benedicite omnes volucres cæli Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:80} All things that fly in the heavens, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:81} Benedicite omnes bestiæ, et pecora Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:81} All beasts and cattle, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:82} Benedicite filii hominum Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:82} Sons of men, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:83} Benedicat Israel Dominum: laudet et superexaltet eum in sæcula.
{3:83} May Israel bless the Lord: and praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:84} Benedicite sacerdotes Domini Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:84} Priests of the Lord, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:85} Benedicite servi Domini Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:85} Servants of the Lord, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:86} Benedicite spiritus, et animæ iustorum Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:86} Spirits and souls of the just, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

~ In the ancient view, the human person is body, soul, and the breath of life (spiritus). At death, the body is buried in a grave, the soul (hopefully) goes to heaven, and the breath of life merely ceases to exist. Thus, spiritus is not another way of referring to the soul, nor is it a separated second soul-like substance, but merely the condition of a body which is alive and which obviously ceases at death. In the modern view, the human person is body and soul. We take for granted the understanding that during life the body has life and at death that bodily life ceases.

~Some have claimed that the human person is tripartite (consisting of three parts) based on a misunderstanding of passages in Scripture that refer to spirit as well as soul. Some passages have been misunderstood because they say that man’s spirit ceases to exist when he dies. Such passages are correctly stating that the breath of life (spiritus) ceases to exist upon death; but these passages are not denying the immortality of the soul (animae).

{3:87} Benedicite sancti, et humiles corde Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.
{3:87} Those who are holy and humble in heart, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever.

{3:88} Benedicite Anania, Azaria, Misael Domino: laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula. Quia eruit nos de inferno, et salvos fecit de manu mortis, et liberavit nos de medio ardentis flammæ, et de medio ignis eruit nos.
{3:88} Hananiah, Azariah, Mishael, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all forever. For he has delivered us from the underworld, and saved us from the hand of death, and freed us from the midst of the burning flame, and rescued us from the midst of the fire.

{3:89} Confitemini Domino, quoniam bonus: quoniam in sæculum misericordia eius.
{3:89} Give thanks to the Lord because he is good: because his mercy is forever.

{3:90} Benedicite omnes religiosi Domino Deo deorum: laudate et confitemini ei, quia in omnia sæcula misericordia eius.
{3:90} All those who are pious, bless the Lord, the God of gods: praise him and acknowledge him because his mercy is for all generations.”

{3:91} Tunc Nabuchodonosor rex obstupuit, et surrexit propere, et ait optimatibus suis: Nonne tres viros misimus in medium ignis compeditos? Qui respondentes regi, dixerunt: Vere rex.
{3:91} Then king Nebuchadnezzar was astonished, and he quickly got up and said to his nobles: “Did we not cast three men shackled into the midst of the fire?” Answering the king, they said, “True, O king.”

~ The word optimatibus means aristocrats or nobles. Taken more literally, it refers to the king’s “best.”

{3:92} Respondit, et ait: Ecce ego video quattuor viros solutos, et ambulantes in medio ignis, et nihil corruptionis in eis est, et species quarti similis filio Dei.
{3:92} He answered and said, “Behold, I see four men unbound and walking in the midst of the fire, and no harm is in them, and the appearance of the fourth is like a son of God.”

{3:93} Tunc accessit Nabuchodonosor ad ostium fornacis ignis ardentis, et ait: Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago servi Dei excelsi, egredimini, et venite. Statimque egressi sunt Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago de medio ignis.
{3:93} Then Nebuchadnezzar approached the entrance of the furnace of burning fire, and he said, “Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, servants of the supreme God, come out and approach.” And immediately Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego went out from the midst of the fire.

{3:94} Et congregati satrapæ, et magistratus, et iudices, et potentes regis contemplabantur viros illos, quoniam nihil potestatis habuisset ignis in corporibus eorum, et capillus capitis eorum non esset adustus, et sarabala eorum non fuissent immutata, et odor ignis non transisset per eos.
{3:94} And when the governors, and the magistrates, and the judges, and the powerful of the king had gathered together, they considered these men because the fire had no power against their bodies, and not a hair of their head had been scorched, and their pants had not been affected, and the smell of the fire had not passed onto them.

{3:95} Et erumpens Nabuchodonosor, ait: Benedictus Deus eorum, Sidrach videlicet, Misach, et Abdenago, qui misit angelum suum, et eruit servos suos, qui crediderunt in eum: et verbum regis immutaverunt, et tradiderunt corpora sua ne servirent, et ne adorarent omnem deum, excepto Deo suo.
{3:95} Then Nebuchadnezzar, bursting out, said, “Blessed is their God, the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, who sent his angel and rescued his servants who believed in him. And they altered the verdict of the king, and they delivered up their bodies, so that they would not serve or adore any god except their God.

{3:96} A me ergo positum est hoc decretum, ut omnis populus, tribus, et lingua, quæcumque locuta fuerit blasphemiam contra Deum Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago, dispereat, et domus eius vastetur: neque enim est alius Deus, qui possit ita salvare.
{3:96} Therefore, this decree is established by me: that every people, tribe, and language, whenever they have spoken blasphemy against the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, will perish and their homes will be destroyed. For there is no other God who is able to save in this way.”

{3:97} Tunc rex promovit Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago in provincia Babylonis.
{3:97} Then the king promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego in the province of Babylon.

{3:98} NABUCHODONOSOR rex, omnibus populis, gentibus, et linguis, qui habitant in universa terra, pax vobis multiplicetur.
{3:98} NEBUCHADNEZZAR, the king, to all peoples, nations, and languages, who dwell in the whole world, may peace be increased with you.

~ In the Latin vulgate text, a word in all capital letters is used to begin a quotation from a letter.

{3:99} Signa, et mirabilia fecit apud me Deus excelsus. Placuit ergo mihi prædicare
{3:99} The supreme God has accomplished signs and wonders with me. Therefore, it has pleased me to proclaim

~ Excelsus is repeatedly used to refer to God in the book of Daniel. Some texts translate this the same as the word Altissimus (Most High). But a better translation uses a different wording, Supreme God or the Supreme One, when translating excelsus Deus or the word Excelsus by itself.

{3:100} signa eius, quia magna sunt: et mirabilia eius, quia fortia: et regnum eius regnum sempiternum, et potestas eius in generationem et generationem.
{3:100} his signs, which are great, and his wonders, which are mighty. For his kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and his power continues from generation to generation.

[Daniel 4]

{4:1} Ego Nabuchodonosor quietus eram in domo mea, et florens in palatio meo:
{4:1} I, Nebuchadnezzar, was content in my house and prospering in my palace.

~ Quietus is typically translated as “resting.” But the rest of the sentence refers to the king’s general state of well-being, not to one particular day. Therefore, quietus is also referring to the king’s general condition, i.e., that he was content in his house, not that he was continually taking rest.

{4:2} somnium vidi, quod perterruit me: et cogitationes meæ in strato meo, et visiones capitis mei conturbaverunt me.
{4:2} I saw a dream that terrified me, and my thoughts on my bed and the visions in my head disturbed me.

{4:3} Et per me propositum est decretum ut introducerentur in conspectu meo cuncti sapientes Babylonis, et ut solutionem somnii indicarent mihi.
{4:3} And so a decree was established by me, that all of the wise men of Babylon should be brought in before me, and that they should reveal to me the answer to the dream.

{4:4} Tunc ingrediebantur arioli, magi, Chaldæi, et aruspices, et somnium narravi in conspectu eorum: et solutionem eius non indicaverunt mihi:
{4:4} Then the seers, the astrologers, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers entered, and I explained about the dream in their presence, but they did not reveal its answer to me.

{4:5} donec collega ingressus est in conspectu meo Daniel, cui nomen Baltassar secundum nomen dei mei, qui habet spiritum deorum sanctorum in semetipso: et somnium coram ipso locutus sum.
{4:5} And then their colleague came in before me, Daniel, (whose name is Belteshazzar according to the name of my god,) who has the spirit of the holy gods within his very self, and I told the dream directly to him.

{4:6} Baltassar princeps ariolorum, quoniam ego scio quod spiritum sanctorum deorum habeas in te, et omne sacramentum non est impossibile tibi: visiones somniorum meorum, quas vidi, et solutionem earum narra.
{4:6} Belteshazzar, leader of the seers, since I know that you have in you the spirit of the holy gods, and that no mystery is unreachable to you, explain to me the visions of my dreams, which I saw, and the solution to them.

{4:7} Visio capitis mei in cubili meo: Videbam, et ecce arbor in medio terræ, et altitudo eius nimia.
{4:7} This was the vision of my head on my bed. I looked, and behold, a tree in the middle of the earth, and its height was exceedingly great.

{4:8} Magna arbor, et fortis: et proceritas eius contingens cælum: aspectus illius erat usque ad terminos universæ terræ.
{4:8} The tree was great and strong, and its height reached up to heaven. It could be seen all the way to the ends of the entire earth.

{4:9} Folia eius pulcherrima, et fructus eius nimius: et esca universorum in ea: subter eam habitabant animalia, et bestiæ, et in ramis eius conversabantur volucres cæli: et ex ea vescebatur omnis caro.
{4:9} Its leaves were very beautiful, and its fruit was very abundant, and in it was food for the whole world. Under it, animals and beasts were dwelling, and in its branches, the birds of the sky were sheltered, and from it, all flesh was fed.

{4:10} Videbam in visione capitis mei super stratum meum, et ecce vigil, et sanctus de cælo descendit.
{4:10} I saw in the vision of my head upon my blanket, and behold, a watcher and a holy one descended from heaven.

{4:11} Clamavit fortiter, et sic ait: Succidite arborem, et præcidite ramos eius: excutite folia eius, et dispergite fructus eius: fugiant bestiæ, quæ subter eam sunt, et volucres de ramis eius.
{4:11} He cried out loudly, and he said this: “Cut down the tree and prune its branches; shake off its leaves and scatter its fruits; let flee the beasts, which are under it, and the birds from its branches.

{4:12} Verumtamen germen radicum eius in terra sinite, et alligetur vinculo ferreo et æreo in herbis, quæ foris sunt, et rore cæli tingatur, et cum feris pars eius in herba terræ.
{4:12} Nevertheless, leave the stump of its roots in the earth, and let it be bound with a band of iron and brass among the plants, which are close by, and let it be touched by the dew of heaven, and let its place be with the wild animals among the plants of the earth.

{4:13} Cor eius ab humano commutetur, et cor feræ detur ei: et septem tempora mutentur super eum.
{4:13} Let his heart be changed from being human, and let the heart of a wild animal be given to him, and let seven periods of time pass over him.

{4:14} In sententia vigilum decretum est, et sermo sanctorum, et petitio: donec cognoscant viventes quoniam dominatur Excelsus in regno hominum; et cuicumque voluerit, dabit illud, et humillimum hominem constituet super eum.
{4:14} This is the decree from the judgment of the watchers, and the decision and proclamation of the holy ones, until the living shall know that the Supreme One is ruler in the kingdom of men, and that he will give it to whomever he wills, and he will appoint the lowest man over it.”

{4:15} Hoc somnium vidi ego Nabuchodonosor rex: tu ergo Baltassar interpretationem narra festinus: quia omnes sapientes regni mei non queunt solutionem edicere mihi: tu autem potes, quia spiritus deorum sanctorum in te est.
{4:15} I, king Nebuchadnezzar, saw this dream. And so you, Belteshazzar, must quickly explain to me the interpretation because all the wise men of my kingdom are not able to declare the meaning of it to me. But you are able because the spirit of the holy gods is in you.

{4:16} Tunc Daniel, cuius nomen Baltassar, cœpit intra semetipsum tacitus cogitare quasi una hora: et cogitationes eius conturbabant eum. Respondens autem rex ait: Baltassar, somnium et interpretatio eius non conturbent te. Respondit Baltassar, et dixit: Domine mi, somnium his, qui te oderunt, et interpretatio eius hostibus tuis sit.
{4:16} Then Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, began silently to think within himself for about one hour, and his thoughts troubled him. But the king responded, saying, “Belteshazzar, do not let the dream and its interpretation disturb you.” Belteshazzar answered and said, “My lord, the dream is for those who hate you, and its interpretation may be for your enemies.

{4:17} Arborem, quam vidisti sublimem, atque robustam, cuius altitudo pertingit ad cælum, et aspectus illius in omnem terram:
{4:17} The tree that you saw was lofty and strong; its height reached toward heaven, and it could be seen throughout the whole world.

{4:18} et rami eius pulcherrimi, et fructus eius nimius, et esca omnium in ea, subter eam habitantes bestiæ agri, et in ramis eius commorantes aves cæli:
{4:18} And its branches were very beautiful, and its fruit very abundant, and in it was food for all. Under it, dwelt the beasts of the field, and in its branches, the birds of the air stayed.

{4:19} Tu es rex, qui magnificatus es, et invaluisti: et magnitudo tua crevit, et pervenit usque ad cælum, et potestas tua in terminos universæ terræ.
{4:19} It is you, O king, who has been greatly esteemed, and you have grown strong. And you have increased your power, and it reaches towards heaven, and your rule is to the ends of the whole earth.

{4:20} Quod autem vidit rex vigilem, et sanctum descendere de cælo, et dicere: Succidite arborem, et dissipate illam, attamen germen radicum eius in terra dimittite, et vinciatur ferro et ære in herbis foris, et rore cæli conspergatur, et cum feris sit pabulum eius, donec septem tempora mutentur super eum:
{4:20} Yet the king also saw a watcher and a holy one descend from heaven and say: ‘Cut down the tree and scatter it; however, leave the stump of its roots in the earth, and let it be bound with iron and brass, among the surrounding plants, and let it be sprinkled with the dew of heaven, and let his feeding be with the wild beasts, until seven periods of time pass over him.’

{4:21} Hæc est interpretatio sententiæ Altissimi, quæ pervenit super dominum meum regem:
{4:21} This is the interpretation of the judgment of the Most High, which has reached my lord, the king.

{4:22} Eiicient te ab hominibus, et cum bestiis ferisque erit habitatio tua, et fœnum ut bos comedes, et rore cæli infunderis: septem quoque tempora mutabuntur super te, donec scias quod dominetur Excelsus super regnum hominum, et cuicumque voluerit, det illud.
{4:22} They will expel you from among men, and your dwelling will be with the beasts and the wild animals, and you will eat hay like an ox, and you will be drenched with the dew of heaven. Likewise, seven periods of time will pass over you, until you know that the Supreme One rules over the kingdom of men, and he gives it to whomever he wills.

{4:23} Quod autem præcepit ut relinqueretur germen radicum eius, id est arboris: regnum tuum tibi manebit postquam cognoveris potestatem esse cælestem.
{4:23} But, since he commanded that the stump of its roots, that is, of the tree, should be left behind, your kingdom will be left for you, after you have realized that power is from divinity.

~ Or, that power is heavenly, i.e., power is from God in heaven, not from kings on earth.

{4:24} Quam ob rem rex consilium meum placeat tibi, et peccata tua eleemosynis redime, et iniquitates tuas misericordiis pauperum: forsitan ignoscet delictis tuis.
{4:24} Because of this, O king, let my counsel be acceptable to you. And redeem your sins with alms, and your iniquities with mercy towards the poor. Perhaps he will forgive your offenses.”

{4:25} Omnia hæc venerunt super Nabuchodonosor regem.
{4:25} All these things came upon king Nebuchadnezzar.

{4:26} Post finem mensium duodecim, in aula Babylonis deambulabat.
{4:26} After the end of twelve months, he was taking a walk in the palace of Babylon.

~ The word deambulabat does not merely refer to the act of walking; it means that someone was walking around, as one would do when talking a walk for recreation or exercise or meditation.

{4:27} Responditque rex, et ait: Nonne hæc est Babylon magna, quam ego ædificavi in domum regni, in robore fortitudinis meæ, et in gloria decoris mei?
{4:27} And the king spoke out loud, saying, “Isn’t this the great Babylon, which I have built, as the home of the kingdom, by the strength of my power and in the glory of my excellence?”

{4:28} Cumque sermo adhuc esset in ore regis, vox de cælo ruit: Tibi dicitur Nabuchodonosor rex: Regnum tuum transibit a te,
{4:28} And while the words were still in the king’s mouth, a voice rushed down from heaven, “To you, O king Nebuchadnezzar, it is said: ‘Your kingdom will be taken away from you,

{4:29} et ab hominibus eiicient te, et cum bestiis et feris erit habitatio tua: fœnum quasi bos comedes, et septem tempora mutabuntur super te, donec scias quod dominetur Excelsus in regno hominum, et cuicumque voluerit, det illud.
{4:29} and they will expel you from among men, and your dwelling will be with the beasts and the wild animals. You will eat hay like an ox, and seven times will pass over you, until you know that the Supreme One rules in the kingdom of men, and he gives it to whomever he wills.’ ”

{4:30} Eadem hora sermo completus est super Nabuchodonosor, et ex hominibus abiectus est, et fœnum ut bos comedit, et rore cæli corpus eius infectum est: donec capilli eius in similitudinem aquilarum crescerent, et ungues eius quasi avium.
{4:30} The same hour, the sentence was fulfilled upon Nebuchadnezzar, and he was driven away from among men, and he ate hay like an ox, and his body was drenched with the dew of heaven, until his hair increased like the feathers of eagles, and his nails like those of birds.

~ Infectum can mean infected or imbued or corrupted or stained or dyed or even poisoned, but in this context it means that one is covered by the dew or thoroughly wet with dew, that is, drenched.

{4:31} Igitur post finem dierum ego Nabuchodonosor oculos meos ad cælum levavi, et sensus meus redditus est mihi: et Altissimo benedixi, et viventem in sempiternum laudavi, et glorificavi: quia potestas eius potestas sempiterna, et regnum eius in generationem et generationem.
{4:31} Therefore, at the end of these days, I, Nebuchadnezzar, lifted up my eyes to heaven, and my mind was restored to me. And I blessed the Most High, and I praised and glorified him who lives forever. For his power is an everlasting power, and his kingdom is from generation to generation.

{4:32} Et omnes habitatores terræ apud eum in nihilum reputati sunt: iuxta voluntatem enim suam facit tam in virtutibus cæli quam in habitatoribus terræ: et non est qui resistat manui eius, et dicat ei: Quare fecisti?
{4:32} And all the inhabitants of the earth are reputed as nothing before him. For he acts according to his own will, with the inhabitants of the earth just as with the holy inhabitants of heaven. And there is no one who can resist his hand, or say to him, “Why have you done this?”

~ Or, “What have you done?” Note the similarity between this verse and the Our Father prayer as taught by Our Lord.

{4:33} In ipso tempore sensus meus reversus est ad me, et ad honorem regni mei, decoremque perveni: et figura mea reversa est ad me: et optimates mei, et magistratus mei requisierunt me, et in regno meo restitutus sum: et magnificentia amplior addita est mihi.
{4:33} At the same time, my mind returned to me, and I arrived at the honor and glory of my kingdom. And my appearance was given back to me. And my nobles and my magistrates needed me. And I was restored to my kingdom, and even greater majesty was added to me.

{4:34} Nunc igitur ego Nabuchodonosor laudo, et magnifico, et glorifico Regem cæli: quia omnia opera eius vera, et viæ eius iudicia, et gradientes in superbia potest humiliare.
{4:34} Therefore I, Nebuchadnezzar, now praise, and magnify, and glorify the King of heaven, because all his works and the judgments of his way are true, and those who go forth in arrogance, he is able to bring low.

[Daniel 5]

{5:1} Baltassar rex fecit grande convivium optimatibus suis mille: et unusquisque secundum suam bibebat ætatem.
{5:1} Belshazzar, the king, made a great feast for a thousand of his nobles, and each one of them drank according to his age.

{5:2} Præcepit ergo iam temulentus ut afferrentur vasa aurea et argentea, quæ asportaverat Nabuchodonosor pater eius de templo, quod fuit in Ierusalem, ut biberent in eis rex, et optimates eius, uxoresque eius, et concubinæ.
{5:2} And so, when they were drunk, he instructed that the vessels of gold and silver should be brought, which Nebuchadnezzar, his father, had carried away from the temple, which was in Jerusalem, so that the king, and his nobles, and his wives, and the concubines, might drink from them.

{5:3} Tunc allata sunt vasa aurea, et argentea, quæ asportaverat de templo, quod fuerat in Ierusalem: et biberunt in eis rex, et optimates eius, uxores et concubinæ illius.
{5:3} Then the gold and silver vessels were presented, which he had carried away from the temple and which had been in Jerusalem, and the king, and his nobles, wives, and concubines, drank from them.

{5:4} Bibebant vinum, et laudabant deos suos aureos, et argenteos, æreos, ferreos, ligneosque et lapideos.
{5:4} They drank wine, and they praised their gods of gold, and silver, brass, iron, and wood and stone.

{5:5} In eadem hora apparuerunt digiti, quasi manus hominis scribentis contra candelabrum in superficie parietis aulæ regiæ: et rex aspiciebat articulos manus scribentis.
{5:5} In the same hour, there appeared fingers, as of the hand of a man, writing on the surface of the wall, opposite the candlestick, in the king’s palace. And the king observed the part of the hand that wrote.

~ Articulos manus can also mean the joints of the hand.

{5:6} Tunc facies regis commutata est, et cogitationes eius conturbabant eum: et compages renum eius solvebantur, et genua eius ad se invicem collidebantur.
{5:6} Then the king’s countenance was changed, and his thoughts disturbed him, and he lost his self-control, and his knees knocked against one other.

~ The phrase “compages renum eius solvebantur” literally means that the binding of his kidneys was loosened. But renum (kidney) was often used figuratively in ancient times (see Wisdom, chapter 1, for another example). It was used to refer to the concepts of temperament, self-control, composure, and patience.

{5:7} Exclamavit itaque rex fortiter ut introducerent magos, Chaldæos, et aruspices. Et proloquens rex ait sapientibus Babylonis: Quicumque legerit scripturam hanc, et interpretationem eius manifestam mihi fecerit, purpura vestietur, et torquem auream habebit in collo, et tertius in regno meo erit.
{5:7} And the king cried out loudly for them to bring in the astrologers, Chaldeans, and soothsayers. And the king proclaimed to the wise men of Babylon, saying, “Whoever will read this writing and make known to me its interpretation will be clothed with purple, and will have a golden chain on his neck, and will be third in my kingdom.”

~ The color purple is repeatedly mentioned in the Book of Daniel as being associated with wealth and royal power. This is because the purple color of ancient times was obtained, in a time-consuming and laborious process, from a certain gland in certain types of shellfish. Thousands of these shellfish were required to produce a small amount of the dye, and so the dye was expensive and rare, and usually only found with the very wealthy or the powerful. This color is often called Royal purple, because of its use by kings, or Tyrian purple, after the city which was a center of production and commerce for the dye.

{5:8} Tunc ingressi omnes sapientes regis non potuerunt nec scripturam legere, nec interpretationem indicare regi.
{5:8} Then, in came all the wise men of the king, but they could neither read the writing, nor reveal the interpretation to the king.

{5:9} Unde rex Baltassar satis conturbatus est, et vultus illius immutatus est: sed et optimates eius turbabantur.
{5:9} Therefore, king Belshazzar was quite confused, and his face was altered, and even his nobles were disturbed.

{5:10} Regina autem pro re, quæ acciderat regi, et optimatibus eius, domum convivii ingressa est: et proloquens ait: Rex in æternum vive: non te conturbent cogitationes tuæ, neque facies tua immutetur.
{5:10} But the queen, because of what had happened to the king and his nobles, entered the banquet house. And she spoke out, saying, “O king, live forever. Do not let your thoughts confuse you, neither should your face be altered.

{5:11} Est vir in regno tuo, qui spiritum deorum sanctorum habet in se: et in diebus patris tui scientia et sapientia inventæ sunt in eo: nam et rex Nabuchodonosor pater tuus principem magorum, incantatorum, Chaldæorum, et aruspicum constituit eum, pater, inquam, tuus, o rex:
{5:11} There is a man in your kingdom, who has the spirit of the holy gods within himself, and in the days of your father, knowledge and wisdom were found in him. For king Nebuchadnezzar, your father, appointed him leader of the astrologers, enchanters, Chaldeans, and soothsayers, even your father, I say to you, O king.

{5:12} quia spiritus amplior, et prudentia, intelligentiaque et interpretatio somniorum, et ostensio secretorum, ac solutio ligatorum inventæ sunt in eo, hoc est in Daniele: cui rex posuit nomen Baltassar: nunc itaque Daniel vocetur, et interpretationem narrabit.
{5:12} For a greater spirit, and foresight, and understanding, and interpretation of dreams, and the revealing of secrets, and the solution to difficulties were found in him, that is, in Daniel, to whom the king gave the name Belteshazzar. Now, therefore, let Daniel be summoned, and he will explain the interpretation.”

{5:13} Igitur introductus est Daniel coram rege. Ad quem præfatus rex ait: Tu es Daniel de filiis captivitatis Iudæ, quem adduxit pater meus rex de Iudæa?
{5:13} Then Daniel was brought in before the king. And the king spoke to him, saying, “Are you Daniel, of the sons of the captivity of Judah, whom my father the king led out of Judea?

{5:14} Audivi de te quoniam spiritum deorum habeas: et scientia, intelligentiaque ac sapientia ampliores inventæ sunt in te.
{5:14} I have heard of you, that you have the spirit of the gods, and that greater knowledge, as well as understanding and wisdom, have been found in you.

{5:15} Et nunc introgressi sunt in conspectu meo sapientes magi, ut scripturam hanc legerent, et interpretationem eius indicarent mihi: et nequiverunt sensum huius sermonis edicere.
{5:15} And now the wise astrologers have entered into my presence, so as to read this writing and to reveal to me its interpretation. And they were not able to tell me the meaning of this writing.

{5:16} Porro ego audivi de te, quod possis obscura interpretari, et ligata dissolvere: si ergo vales scripturam legere, et interpretationem eius indicare mihi, purpura vestieris, et torquem auream circa collum tuum habebis, et tertius in regno meo princeps eris.
{5:16} Furthermore, I have heard about you that you can interpret obscure things and solve difficulties. So then, if you succeed in reading the writing, and in revealing its interpretation, you will be clothed with purple, and you will have a chain of gold around your neck, and you will be the third leader in my kingdom.”

{5:17} Ad quæ respondens Daniel, ait coram rege: Munera tua sint tibi, et dona domus tuæ alteri da: scripturam autem legam tibi, rex, et interpretationem eius ostendam tibi.
{5:17} To this Daniel responded by saying directly to the king, “Your rewards should be for yourself, and the gifts of your house you may give to another, but I will read to you the writing, O king, and I will reveal to you its interpretation.

{5:18} O rex, Deus altissimus regnum, et magnificentiam, gloriam, et honorem dedit Nabuchodonosor patri tuo.
{5:18} O king, the Most High God gave to Nebuchadnezzar, your father, a kingdom and greatness, glory and honor.

{5:19} Et propter magnificentiam, quam dederat ei, universi populi, tribus, et linguæ tremebant, et metuebant eum: quos volebat, interficiebat: et quos volebat, percutiebat: et quos volebat, exaltabat: et quos volebat, humiliabat.
{5:19} And because of the greatness that he gave to him, all peoples, tribes, and languages trembled and were afraid of him. Whomever he wished, he put to death; and whomever he wished, he destroyed; and whomever he wished, he exalted; and whomever he wished, he lowered.

{5:20} Quando autem elevatum est cor eius, et spiritus illius obfirmatus est ad superbiam, depositus est de solio regni sui, et gloria eius ablata est:
{5:20} But when his heart was lifted up and his spirit was hardened in arrogance, he was deposed from the throne of his kingdom and his glory was taken away.

{5:21} et a filiis hominum eiectus est, sed et cor eius cum bestiis positum est, et cum onagris erat habitatio eius: fœnum quoque ut bos comedebat, et rore cæli corpus eius infectum est, donec cognosceret quod potestatem haberet Altissimus in regno hominum: et quemcumque voluerit, suscitabit super illud.
{5:21} And he was expelled from the sons of men, and so his heart was placed with the beasts, and his dwelling was with the wild donkeys, and he ate hay like an ox, and his body was drenched with the dew of heaven, until he realized that the Most High holds power over the kingdom of men, and that whoever he wishes, he will set over it.

{5:22} Tu quoque filius eius Baltassar, non humiliasti cor tuum, cum scires hæc omnia:
{5:22} Likewise, you, his son Belshazzar, have not humbled your heart, though you knew all these things.

{5:23} sed adversum Dominatorem cæli elevatus es: et vasa domus eius allata sunt coram te: et tu, et optimates tui, et uxores tuæ, et concubinæ tuæ vinum bibistis in eis: deos quoque argenteos, et aureos, et æreos, ferreos, ligneosque et lapideos, qui non vident, neque audiunt, neque sentiunt, laudasti: porro Deum, qui habet flatum tuum in manu sua, et omnes vias tuas, non glorificasti.
{5:23} But you have lifted yourself up against the Lord of heaven. And the vessels of his house have been presented before you. And you, and your nobles, and your wives, and your concubines, have drunk wine from them. Likewise, you have praised the gods of silver, and gold, and brass, iron, and wood and stone, who neither see, nor hear, nor feel, yet you have not glorified the God who holds your breath and all your ways in his hand.

{5:24} Idcirco ab eo missus est articulus manus, quæ scripsit hoc, quod exaratum est.
{5:24} Therefore, he has sent the part of the hand which has written this, which has been inscribed.

{5:25} Hæc est autem scriptura, quæ digesta est: MANE, THECEL, PHARES.
{5:25} But this is the writing that has been decreed: MANE, THECEL, PHARES.

{5:26} Et hæc est interpretatio sermonis. MANE: numeravit Deus regnum tuum, et complevit illud.
{5:26} And this is the interpretation of the words. MANE: God has numbered your kingdom and has finished it.

{5:27} THECEL: appensus es in statera, et inventus es minus habens.
{5:27} THECEL: you have been weighed on the scales and found lacking.

{5:28} PHARES: divisum est regnum tuum, et datum est Medis, et Persis.
{5:28} PHARES: your kingdom has been divided and has been given to the Medes and the Persians.

{5:29} Tunc iubente rege indutus est Daniel purpura, et circumdata est torques aurea collo eius: et prædicatum est de eo quod haberet potestatem tertius in regno suo.
{5:29} Then, by the king’s command, Daniel was dressed with purple, and a chain of gold was placed around his neck, and it was proclaimed of him that he held power as the third in the kingdom.

{5:30} Eadem nocte interfectus est Baltassar rex Chaldæus.
{5:30} That same night, king Belshazzar the Chaldean was killed.

{5:31} Et Darius Medus successit in regnum annos natus sexagintaduos.
{5:31} And Darius the Mede succeeded to the kingdom, at the age of sixty-two years.

[Daniel 6]

{6:1} Placuit Dario, et constituit super regnum satrapas centum viginti ut essent in toto regno suo.
{6:1} It pleased Darius, and so he appointed over the kingdom one hundred twenty governors, to be placed throughout his whole kingdom.

{6:2} Et super eos principes tres, ex quibus Daniel unus erat: ut satrapæ illis redderent rationem, et rex non sustineret molestiam.
{6:2} And over these, three leaders, of whom Daniel was one, so that the governors would be accountable to them and the king would have no trouble.

{6:3} Igitur Daniel superabat omnes principes, et satrapas: quia spiritus Dei amplior erat in illo.
{6:3} And so Daniel excelled above all the leaders and governors, because a greater spirit of God was in him.

{6:4} Porro rex cogitabat constituere eum super omne regnum: unde principes, et satrapæ quærebant occasionem ut invenirent Danieli ex latere regis: nullamque causam, et suspicionem reperire potuerunt, eo quod fidelis esset, et omnis culpa, et suspicio non inveniretur in eo.
{6:4} Furthermore, the king considered setting him over the entire kingdom; whereupon the leaders and the governors sought to find a complaint against Daniel and in favor of the king. And they could find no case, or even suspicion, because he was faithful, and no fault or suspicion was found in him.

~ The phrase “ex latere regis” means on the side of the king, or, more loosely, in favor of the king. They wanted to find, not merely a complaint against Daniel, but one which would pit the king against Daniel.

{6:5} Dixerunt ergo viri illi: Non inveniemus Danieli huic aliquam occasionem, nisi forte in lege Dei sui.
{6:5} Therefore, these men said, “We will not find any complaint against this Daniel, unless it is against the law of his God.”

{6:6} Tunc principes, et satrapæ surripuerunt regi, et sic locuti sunt ei: Dari rex in æternum vive:
{6:6} Then the leaders and governors took the king aside privately and spoke to him in this way: “King Darius, live forever.

{6:7} consilium inierunt omnes principes regni tui, magistratus, et satrapæ, senatores, et iudices ut decretum imperatorium exeat, et edictum: Ut omnis, qui petierit aliquam petitionem a quocumque deo, et homine usque ad triginta dies, nisi a te rex, mittatur in lacum leonum.
{6:7} All the leaders of your kingdom, the magistrates and governors, the senators and judges, have taken counsel that an imperial decree and edict should be published, so that all who ask any petition of any god or man for thirty days, except of you, O king, will be cast into the den of lions.

{6:8} Nunc itaque rex confirma sententiam, et scribe decretum: ut non immutetur quod statutum est a Medis et Persis, nec prævaricari cuiquam liceat.
{6:8} Now, therefore, O king, confirm this judgment and write the decree, so that what is established by the Medes and Persians may not be altered, nor will any man be allowed to transgress it.”

{6:9} Porro rex Darius proposuit edictum, et statuit.
{6:9} And so king Darius set forth the decree and established it.

{6:10} Quod cum Daniel comperisset, id est, constitutam legem, ingressus est domum suam: et fenestris apertis in cœnaculo suo contra Ierusalem tribus temporibus in die flectebat genua sua, et adorabat, confitebaturque coram Deo suo sicut et ante facere consueverat.
{6:10} Now when Daniel learned of this, namely, that the law had been established, he entered his house, and, opening the windows in his upper room towards Jerusalem, he knelt down three times a day, and he adored and gave thanks before his God, as he had been accustomed to do previously.

{6:11} Viri ergo illi curiosius inquirentes invenerunt Danielem orantem, et obsecrantem Deum suum.
{6:11} Therefore, these men, inquiring diligently, discovered that Daniel was praying and making supplication to his God.

{6:12} Et accedentes locuti sunt regi super edicto: Rex numquid non constituisti, ut omnis homo, qui rogaret quemquam de diis, et hominibus usque ad dies triginta, nisi te, rex, mitteretur in lacum leonum? Ad quos respondens rex, ait: Verus est sermo iuxta decretum Medorum, atque Persarum, quod prævaricari non licet.
{6:12} And they approached and spoke to the king about the edict. “O king, did you not decree that every man who makes a request to any of the gods or men for thirty days, except to yourself, O king, would be cast into the den of lions?” To which the king replied, saying, “The sentence is true, and according to the decree of the Medes and Persians, it is not lawful to violate it.”

{6:13} Tunc respondentes dixerunt coram rege: Daniel de filiis captivitatis Iuda, non curavit de lege tua, et de edicto, quod constituisti: sed tribus temporibus per diem orat obsecratione sua.
{6:13} Then they answered and said before the king, “Daniel, of the sons of the captivity of Judah, is not concerned about your law, nor about the decree that you have established, but three times a day he prays his supplication.”

{6:14} Quod verbum cum audisset rex, satis contristatus est: et pro Daniele posuit cor ut liberaret eum, et usque ad occasum solis laborabat ut erueret illum.
{6:14} Now when the king had heard these words, he was greatly grieved, and, on behalf of Daniel, he set his heart to free him, and he labored even until sunset to rescue him.

{6:15} Viri autem illi intelligentes regem dixerunt ei: Scito rex, quia lex Medorum, atque Persarum est ut omne decretum, quod constituerit rex, non liceat immutari.
{6:15} But these men, knowing the king, said to him, “You know, O king, that the law of the Medes and Persians is that every decree which the king has established may not be altered.”

{6:16} Tunc rex præcepit: et adduxerunt Danielem, et miserunt eum in lacum leonum. Dixitque rex Danieli: Deus tuus, quem colis semper, ipse liberabit te.
{6:16} Then the king commanded, and they brought Daniel and cast him into the den of lions. And the king said to Daniel, “Your God, whom you always serve, he himself will free you.”

{6:17} Allatusque est lapis unus, et positus est super os laci: quem obsignavit rex annulo suo, et annulo optimatum suorum, nequid fieret contra Danielem.
{6:17} And a stone was brought, and it was placed over the mouth of the den, which the king sealed with his own ring, and with the ring of his nobles, so that no one would act against Daniel.

{6:18} Et abiit rex in domum suam, et dormivit incœnatus, cibique non sunt allati coram eo, insuper et somnus recessit ab eo.
{6:18} And the king departed into his house, and he went to bed without eating, and food was not set before him, moreover, even sleep fled from him.

{6:19} Tunc rex primo diluculo consurgens, festinus ad lacum leonum perrexit:
{6:19} Then the king, getting himself up at first light, went quickly to the den of lions.

{6:20} appropinquansque lacui, Danielem voce lacrymabili inclamavit, et affatus est eum: Daniel serve Dei viventis, Deus tuus, cui tu servis semper, putasne valuit te liberare a leonibus?
{6:20} And coming near to the den, he cried out with a tearful voice to Daniel and spoke to him. “Daniel, servant of the living God, your God, whom you serve always, do you believe he has prevailed to free you from the lions?”

{6:21} Et Daniel regi respondens ait: Rex in æternum vive:
{6:21} And Daniel, answering the king, said, “O king, live forever.

{6:22} Deus meus misit angelum suum, et conclusit ora leonum, et non nocuerunt mihi: quia coram eo iustitia inventa est in me: sed et coram te, rex, delictum non feci.
{6:22} My God has sent his angel, and he has closed the mouths of the lions, and they have not harmed me, because before him justice has been found in me, and, even before you, O king, I have committed no offense.”

{6:23} Tunc vehementer rex gavisus est super eo, et Danielem præcepit educi de lacu: eductusque est Daniel de lacu, et nulla læsio inventa est in eo, quia credidit Deo suo.
{6:23} Then was the king exceedingly glad for him, and he commanded that Daniel should be taken out of the den. And Daniel was taken out of the den, and no wound was found in him, because he believed in his God.

{6:24} Iubente autem rege, adducti sunt viri illi, qui accusaverant Danielem: et in lacum leonum missi sunt, ipsi, et filii, et uxores eorum: et non pervenerunt usque ad pavimentum laci, donec arriperent eos leones, et omnia ossa eorum comminuerunt.
{6:24} Moreover, by order of the king, those men were brought who had accused Daniel, and they were cast into the lions’ den, they, and their sons, and their wives, and they did not reach the bottom of the den before the lions seized them and crushed all their bones.

{6:25} Tunc Darius rex scripsit universis populis, tribubus, et linguis habitantibus in universa terra: PAX vobis multiplicetur.
{6:25} Then king Darius wrote to all peoples, tribes, and languages dwelling in all the land. “May peace be increased with you.

{6:26} A me constitutum est decretum, ut in universo imperio, et regno meo tremiscant, et paveant Deum Danielis: ipse est enim Deus vivens, et æternus in sæcula: et regnum eius non dissipabitur, et potestas eius usque in æternum.
{6:26} It is hereby established by my decree that, in all my empire and my kingdom, they shall begin to tremble and fear the God of Daniel. For he is the living and eternal God forever, and his kingdom will not be destroyed, and his power will last forever.

{6:27} Ipse liberator, atque salvator, faciens signa, et mirabilia in cælo, et in terra: qui liberavit Danielem de lacu leonum.
{6:27} He is the liberator and the savior, performing signs and wonders in heaven and on earth, who has freed Daniel from the lions’ den.”

~ Mirabilia could also be translated as miracles.

{6:28} Porro Daniel perseveravit usque ad regnum Darii, regnumque Cyri Persæ.
{6:28} Thereafter, Daniel continued through the reign of Darius until the reign of Cyrus, the Persian.

[Daniel 7]

{7:1} Anno primo Baltassar regis Babylonis, Daniel somnium vidit: visio autem capitis eius in cubili suo: et somnium scribens, brevi sermone comprehendit: summatimque perstringens, ait:
{7:1} In the first year of Belshazzar, king of Babylon, Daniel saw a dream and a vision in his head on his bed. And, writing down the dream, he understood it in a concise manner, and so, summarizing it tersely, he said:

{7:2} Videbam in visione mea nocte, et ecce quattuor venti cæli pugnabant in mari magno.
{7:2} I saw in my vision at night, and behold, the four winds of the heavens fought upon the great sea.

{7:3} Et quattuor bestiæ grandes ascendebant de mari diversæ inter se.
{7:3} And four great beasts, different from one another, ascended from the sea.

{7:4} Prima quasi leæna, et alas habebat aquilæ: aspiciebam donec evulsæ sunt alæ eius, et sublata est de terra, et super pedes quasi homo stetit, et cor hominis datum est ei.
{7:4} The first was like a lioness and had the wings of an eagle. I watched as its wings were plucked off, and it was raised from the earth and stood on its feet like a man, and the heart of a man was given to it.

~ The word leaena is clearly and deliberately the feminine word for lion. This word choice indicates that the group of nations represented by the lioness will have at least one prominent nation that will be led by a woman at this point in time. The wings of an eagle represent the United States and its military air power.

{7:5} Et ecce bestia alia similis urso in parte stetit: et tres ordines erant in ore eius, et in dentibus eius, et sic dicebant ei: Surge, comede carnes plurimas.
{7:5} And behold, another beast, like a bear, stood to one side, and there were three rows in its mouth and in its teeth, and they spoke to it in this way: “Arise, devour much flesh.”

~ The three rows in its mouth and in its teeth represent three branches of government and three branches of the military, all of which are saying to the country to go to war and to conquer and annex other nations (growing fatter as when one devours much food).

{7:6} Post hæc aspiciebam, et ecce alia quasi pardus, et alas habebat quasi avis, quattuor super se, et quattuor capita erant in bestia, et potestas data est ei.
{7:6} After this, I watched, and behold, another like a leopard, and it had wings like a bird, four upon it, and four heads were on the beast, and power was given to it.

~ Pardus can mean leopard or panther.

{7:7} Post hæc aspiciebam in visione noctis, et ecce bestia quarta terribilis, atque mirabilis, et fortis nimis, dentes ferreos habebat magnos, comedens atque comminuens, et reliqua pedibus suis conculcans: dissimilis autem erat ceteris bestiis, quas videram ante eam, et habebat cornua decem.
{7:7} After this, I watched in the vision of the night, and behold, a fourth beast, terrible yet wondrous, and exceedingly strong; it had great iron teeth, eating yet crushing, and trampling down the remainder with his feet, but it was unlike the other beasts, which I had seen before it, and it had ten horns.

{7:8} Considerabam cornua, et ecce cornu aliud parvulum ortum est de medio eorum: et tria de cornibus primis evulsa sunt a facie eius: et ecce oculi, quasi oculi hominis erant in cornu isto, et os loquens ingentia.
{7:8} I considered the horns, and behold, another little horn rose out of the midst of them. And three of the first horns were rooted out by its presence. And behold, eyes like the eyes of a man were in this horn, and a mouth speaking unnatural things.

~ The word ingentia can mean unnatural or monstrous or enormous. In this case, since this kingdom and its leader are unlike any other, it cannot mean merely great or enormous things, because many arrogant leaders have spoken as if they were greater than they were. The false prophetess is the one who speaks unnatural things, things contrary to nature and God, monstrous things against all good order and reason. The eyes of a man in this horn refers to the Antichrist, and the mouth is the false prophetess who speaks on his behalf.

{7:9} Aspiciebam donec throni positi sunt, et Antiquus dierum sedit: vestimentum eius candidum quasi nix, et capilli capitis eius quasi lana munda: thronus eius flammæ ignis: rotæ eius ignis accensus.
{7:9} I watched until thrones were set up, and the Ancient of days sat down. His garment was radiant like snow, and the hair of his head like clean wool; his throne was flames of fire, its wheels had been set on fire.

{7:10} Fluvius igneus, rapidusque egrediebatur a facie eius. Millia millium ministrabant ei, et decies millies centena millia assistebant ei: iudicium sedit, et libri aperti sunt.
{7:10} A river of fire rushed forth from his presence. Thousands upon thousands ministered to him, and ten thousand times hundreds of thousands attended before him. The trial began, and the books were opened.

~ Or “millions ministered to him and billions attended before him.” Iudicium sedit literally means the judgment sat or the trial sat, i.e., the trial began. This refers to the Day of Judgment.

{7:11} Aspiciebam propter vocem sermonum grandium, quos cornu illud loquebatur: et vidi quoniam interfecta esset bestia, et perisset corpus eius, et traditum esset ad comburendum igni:
{7:11} I watched because of the voice of the great words which that horn was speaking, and I saw that the beast had been destroyed, and its body was ruined and had been handed over to be burnt with fire.

~ The translation here avoids saying that the beast (the Antichrist) was killed, because the Book of Revelation clearly states, about the beast and the false prophet: “These two were thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with brimstone.” (Rev 19:20).

{7:12} aliarum quoque bestiarum ablata esset potestas, et tempora vitæ constituta essent eis usque ad tempus, et tempus.
{7:12} Likewise, the power of the other beasts was taken away, and a limited time of life was appointed to them, until one time and another.

{7:13} Aspiciebam ergo in visione noctis, et ecce cum nubibus cæli quasi filius hominis veniebat, et usque ad Antiquum dierum pervenit: et in conspectu eius obtulerunt eum.
{7:13} I watched, therefore, in the vision of the night, and behold, with the clouds of heaven, one like a son of man arrived, and he approached all the way to the Ancient of days, and they presented him before him.

{7:14} Et dedit ei potestatem, et honorem, et regnum: et omnes populi, tribus, et linguæ ipsi servient: potestas eius, potestas æterna, quæ non auferetur: et regnum eius, quod non corrumpetur.
{7:14} And he gave him power, and honor, and the kingdom, and all peoples, tribes, and languages will serve him. His power is an eternal power, which will not be taken away, and his kingdom, one which will not be corrupted.

{7:15} Horruit spiritus meus, ego Daniel territus sum in his, et visiones capitis mei conturbaverunt me.
{7:15} My spirit was terrified. I, Daniel, was fearful at these things, and the visions of my head disturbed me.

{7:16} Accessi ad unum de assistentibus, et veritatem quærebam ab eo de omnibus his. Qui dixit mihi interpretationem sermonum, et docuit me:
{7:16} I approached one of the attendants and asked the truth from him about all these things. He told me the interpretation of the words, and he instructed me:

{7:17} Hæ quattuor bestiæ magnæ: quattuor sunt regna, quæ consurgent de terra.
{7:17} “These four great beasts are four kingdoms, which will rise from the earth.

{7:18} Suscipient autem regnum sancti Dei altissimi: et obtinebunt regnum usque in sæculum, et sæculum sæculorum.
{7:18} Yet it is the saints of the Most High God who will receive the kingdom, and they will hold the kingdom from this generation, and forever and ever.”

{7:19} Post hoc volui diligenter discere de bestia quarta, quæ erat dissimilis valde ab omnibus, et terribilis nimis: dentes et ungues eius ferrei: comedebat, et comminuebat, et reliqua pedibus suis conculcabat:
{7:19} After this, I wanted to learn diligently about the fourth beast, which was very different from all, and exceedingly terrible; his teeth and claws were of iron; he devoured and crushed, and the remainder he trampled with his feet;

{7:20} et de cornibus decem, quæ habebat in capite: et de alio, quod ortum fuerat, ante quod ceciderant tria cornua: et de cornu illo, quod habebat oculos, et os loquens grandia, et maius erat ceteris.
{7:20} and about the ten horns, which he had on his head, and about the other, which had sprung up, before which three horns fell, and about that horn which had eyes and a mouth speaking great things, and which was more powerful than the rest.

{7:21} Aspiciebam, et ecce cornu illud faciebat bellum adversus sanctos, et prævalebat eis,
{7:21} I watched, and behold, that horn made war against the holy ones and prevailed over them,

{7:22} donec venit Antiquus dierum, et iudicium dedit sanctis Excelsi, et tempus advenit, et regnum obtinuerunt sancti.
{7:22} until the Ancient of days came and gave judgment to the holy ones of the Supreme One, and the time arrived, and the holy ones obtained the kingdom.

{7:23} Et sic ait: Bestia quarta, regnum quartum erit in terra, quod maius erit omnibus regnis, et devorabit universam terram, et conculcabit, et comminuet eam.
{7:23} And thus he said, “The fourth beast will be the fourth kingdom on earth, which will be greater than all the kingdoms, and will devour the whole earth, and will trample and crush it.

{7:24} Porro cornua decem ipsius regni, decem reges erunt: et alius consurget post eos, et ipse potentior erit prioribus, et tres reges humiliabit.
{7:24} Moreover, the ten horns of the same kingdom will be ten kings, and another will rise up after them, and he will be mightier than the ones before him, and he will bring down three kings.

{7:25} Et sermones contra Excelsum loquetur, et sanctos Altissimi conteret: et putabit quod possit mutare tempora, et leges, et tradentur in manu eius usque ad tempus, et tempora, et dimidium temporis.
{7:25} And he will speak words against the Supreme One, and will exhaust the holy ones of the Most High, and he will think about what it would take to change the times and the laws, and they will be given into his hand until a time, and times, and half a time.

{7:26} Et iudicium sedebit ut auferatur potentia, et conteratur, et dispereat usque in finem.
{7:26} And a trial will begin, so that his power may be taken away, and be crushed, and be undone all the way to the end.

{7:27} Regnum autem, et potestas, et magnitudo regni, quæ est subter omne cælum, detur populo sanctorum Altissimi: cuius regnum, regnum sempiternum est, et omnes reges servient ei, et obedient.
{7:27} Yet the kingdom, and the power, and the greatness of that kingdom, which is under all of heaven, shall be given to the people of the holy ones of the Most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all kings will serve and obey him.”

{7:28} Hucusque finis verbi. Ego Daniel multum cogitationibus meis conturbabar, et facies mea mutata est in me: verbum autem in corde meo conservavi.
{7:28} And here is the end of the message. I, Daniel, was greatly disturbed by my thoughts, and my mood was changed in me, but I preserved the message in my heart.

[Daniel 8]

{8:1} Anno tertio regni Baltassar regis, visio apparuit mihi. Ego Daniel post id, quod videram in principio,
{8:1} In the third year of the reign of Belshazzar the king, a vision appeared to me. After that which I had seen in the beginning, I, Daniel,

{8:2} vidi in visione mea, cum essem in Susis castro, quod est in Ælam regione: vidi autem in visione esse me super portam Ulai.
{8:2} saw in my vision, that I was in the capital city of Susa, which is in the region of Elam, yet I saw in the vision that I was over the gate of Ulai.

{8:3} Et levavi oculus meos, et vidi: et ecce aries unus stabat ante paludem, habens cornua excelsa, et unum excelsius altero atque succrescens.
{8:3} And I lifted up my eyes and saw, and behold, a single ram stood before the marsh, having two high horns, and one was higher than the other and growing higher still.

{8:4} Postea vidi arietem cornibus ventilantem contra Occidentem, et contra Aquilonem, et contra Meridiem, et omnes bestiæ non poterant resistere ei, neque liberari de manu eius: fecitque secundum voluntatem suam, et magnificatus est.
{8:4} After this, I saw the ram brandishing his horns against the West, and against the North, and against the Meridian, and all the beasts could not withstand him, nor be freed from his hand, and he did according to his own will, and he became great.

~ The word Meridiem is sometimes incorrectly translated as South. Later in the book of Daniel, the Latin word for South is used, Austri. But here, a different area of the world is indicated. The Meridian, in my interpretation, refers to central Africa, where the meridians of latitude and longitude cross (just off the coast of central Africa). South is used to refer, instead, to the area of the world formerly the southern part of the great monarch’s (the he-goat’s) kingdom.

{8:5} Et ego intelligebam: ecce autem hircus caprarum veniebat ab Occidente super faciem totius terræ, et non tangebat terram: porro hircus habebat cornu insigne inter oculos suos.
{8:5} And I understood, and behold, a he-goat among she-goats came from the West above the face of the entire earth, and he did not touch the ground. Furthermore, the he-goat had a preeminent horn between his eyes.

~ The phrase “hircus caprarum” literally means a he-goat of she-goats. Caprarum is in the genitive case, which often, but not always, implies possession. However, this phrase can be more loosely, and yet more accurately, translated as “a he-goat among she-goats.” The implication is that the leader symbolized by the he-goat is a leader among a group of other leaders, many of whom are women. This would be very unusual in past centuries, but fits the modern political situation, which is nevertheless unfortunate and offensive to God, wherein women take roles of leadership in society. Traveling across the whole earth without touching the ground was not possible when this book was written, nor for many centuries afterwards; it has only become possible relatively recently.

{8:6} Et venit usque ad arietem illum cornutum, quem videram stantem ante portam, et cucurrit ad eum in impetu fortitudinis suæ.
{8:6} And he went all the way to the ram that had the horns, which I had seen standing before the gate, and he ran towards him in the force of his strength.

{8:7} Cumque appropinquasset prope arietem, efferatus est in eum, et percussit arietem: et comminuit duo cornua eius, et non poterat aries resistere ei: cumque eum misisset in terram, conculcavit, et nemo quibat liberare arietem de manu eius.
{8:7} And when he approached near to the ram, he was enraged against him, and he struck the ram, and broke his two horns, and the ram could not withstand him, and when he had cast him down on the ground, he trampled him, and no one was able to free the ram from his hand.

{8:8} Hircus autem caprarum magnus factus est nimis: cumque crevisset, fractum est cornu magnum, et orta sunt quattuor cornua subter illud per quattuor ventos cæli.
{8:8} But the he-goat among she-goats became exceedingly great, and when he had prospered, the great horn was shattered, and four horns were rising up beneath it by means of the four winds of heaven.

{8:9} De uno autem ex eis egressum est cornu unum modicum: et factum est grande contra Meridiem, et contra Orientem, et contra fortitudinem.
{8:9} But from one of them came forth one little horn, and it became great against the Meridian, and against the East, and against the strength.

~ These are the three kings the Antichrist (the little horn) will put down: the king of the meridian (near the equator), the king of the East, and the king of the strength (the Middle East, where the holy land is and which will be the last bastion of Christianity). The king of the strength is also called the king of the South, because this kingdom used to be the southern part of the great monarch’s kingdom.

{8:10} Et magnificatum est usque ad fortitudinem cæli: et deiecit de fortitudine, et de stellis, et conculcavit eas.
{8:10} And it was magnified even towards the strength of heaven, and it threw down those of the strength and of the stars, and it trampled them.

{8:11} Et usque ad principem fortitudinis magnificatum est: et ab eo tulit iuge sacrificium, et deiecit locum sanctificationis eius.
{8:11} And it was magnified, even to the leader of the strength, and it took away from him the continual sacrifice, and cast down the place of his sanctuary.

{8:12} Robur autem datum est ei contra iuge sacrificium propter peccata: et prosternetur veritas in terra, et faciet, et prosperabitur.
{8:12} And the advantage was given to him against the continual sacrifice, because of the sins, and truth will be struck down to the ground, and he will act, and he will prosper.

{8:13} Et audivi unum de sanctis loquentem: et dixit unus sanctus alteri nescio cui loquenti: Usquequo visio, et iuge sacrificium, et peccatum desolationis, quæ facta est: et sanctuarium, et fortitudo conculcabitur?
{8:13} And I heard one of the holy ones speaking, and one saint said to another, (I know not to whom he was speaking,) “What is the extent of the vision, and the continual sacrifice, and the sin of the desolation, which has happened, and of the sanctuary and the strength, which will be trampled?”

{8:14} Et dixit ei: Usque ad vesperam at mane, dies duo millia trecenti: et mundabitur sanctuarium.
{8:14} And he said to him, “From evening until morning, two thousand three hundred days, and so the sanctuary will be cleansed.”

~ The text is not counting 1150 days as 1150 evenings plus 1150 mornings (1150 x 2 = 2300); nor is the text telling us what we already know, that a day includes daytime and nighttime. Here the translation, “From evening until morning,” refers metaphorically to this space of time, i.e., from a time of darkness (evening) until a new day dawns (morning). The time of the Antichrist is a time of darkness, which lasts 2300 days, that is, until the end of his reign. After that end, and a brief time for repentance and the punishment of the unrepentant, Christ returns.

{8:15} Factum est autem cum viderem ego Daniel visionem, et quærerem intelligentiam: ecce stetit in conspectu meo quasi species viri.
{8:15} But it came to pass, when I, Daniel, saw the vision and sought understanding that, behold, there stood in my sight something like the appearance of a man.

{8:16} Et audivi vocem viri inter Ulai: et clamavit, et ait: Gabriel fac intelligere istum visionem.
{8:16} And I heard the voice of a man within Ulai, and he called out and said, “Gabriel, make this one understand the vision.”

{8:17} Et venit, et stetit iuxta ubi ego stabam: cumque venisset, pavens corrui in faciem meam, et ait ad me: Intellige fili hominis, quoniam in tempore finis complebitur visio.
{8:17} And he came and stood next to where I was standing, and when he approached, I fell on my face, trembling, and he said to me, “Understand, son of man, for in the time of the end the vision will be fulfilled.”

{8:18} Cumque loqueretur ad me, collapsus sum pronus in terram: et tetigit me, et statuit me in gradu meo,
{8:18} And when he spoke to me, I fell forward onto the ground, and so he touched me and stood me upright.

{8:19} dixitque mihi: Ego ostendam tibi quæ futura sunt in novissimo maledictionis: quoniam habet tempus finem suum.
{8:19} And he said to me, “I will reveal to you what the future things are in the earlier tribulation, for the time has its end.

~ In the phrase “novissimo maledictionis,” novissimo does not mean newest, nor does it mean last, but rather refers, in this context, to something which occurs both at a later time (than the time of Daniel) and earlier than a similar event. The word maledictionis, which often means curse (evil-speaking), refers to an accursed time, that is, to the time often called the tribulation. The tribulation is divided into two parts, occurring in two different time periods; this text refers to the earlier of the two.

{8:20} Aries, quem vidisti habere cornua, rex Medorum est atque Persarum.
{8:20} The ram, which you saw to have horns, is the king of the Medes and Persians.

{8:21} Porro hircus caprarum, rex Græcorum est, et cornu grande, quod erat inter oculos eius, ipse est rex primus.
{8:21} Furthermore, the he-goat among she-goats is the king of the Greeks, and the great horn, which was between his eyes, is the same one, the first king.

{8:22} Quod autem fracto illo surrexerunt quattuor pro eo: quattuor reges de gente eius consurgent, sed non in fortitudine eius.
{8:22} And since, having been shattered, there grew four in its place, four kings will rise up from his people, but not in his strength.

~ The word fortitudine, or strength, is used here and elsewhere to refer to the strength of the Christian faith and to those areas or persons who are strong in the Faith.

{8:23} Et post regnum eorum, cum creverint iniquitates, consurget rex impudens facie, et intelligens propositiones.
{8:23} And after their reign, when iniquities will be increased, there will arise a king of shameless face and understanding negotiations.

~ Or, understanding strategies, or understanding (intellectual) arguments.

{8:24} Et roborabitur fortitudo eius, sed non in viribus suis: et supra quam credi potest, universa vastabit, et prosperabitur, et faciet. Et interficiet robustos, et populum sanctorum
{8:24} And his advantage will be strengthened, but not by his kind of force, and other than what he will be able to trust, everything will be eradicated, and he will prosper, and he will act. And he will execute the successful and the people of the saints,

~ Again, fortitudo is used to refer to the strength of the Christian faith. Literally, it says “his strength will be strengthened.” However, in this case, fortitudo is combined with roborabitur to indicate that the Antichrist’s kind of strength will be reinforced by a strength from out of the midst of the Christian faith. This text refers to false Christians. The Antichrist will increase his advantage by making an alliance with the dishonorable, deceitful, unfaithful, false Christians. It is these false Christians who devise the abomination of desolation as a way to try to destroy the Church from within. The abomination of desolation is a false Eucharist, a perverse imitation of the Blessed Sacrament and the Holy Mass.

{8:25} secundum voluntatem suam, et dirigetur dolus in manu eius: et cor suum magnificabit, et in copia rerum omnium occidet plurimos: et contra Principem principum consurget, et sine manu conteretur.
{8:25} according to his will, and treachery will be guided by his hand. And his heart will be inflated, and by the abundance of everything he will kill many, and he will rise up against the Lord of lords, and he will be knocked down without a hand.

~ Principem is often translated as Prince, but it usually refers not to the king’s son, but to the more general concept of a leader of some kind. The Principem principum is clearly Christ, the King of kings and Lord of lords. The phrase “sine manu” can mean “without hand” or “by no human hand,” i.e., that God’s angel strikes him down, or it can mean “without effort,” in that he is struck down by God very easily, without need of great force or a legion of angels.

{8:26} Et visio vespere et mane, quæ dicta est, vera est: tu ergo visionem signa, quia post multos dies erit.
{8:26} And the vision of the evening and the morning, which was told, is true. Therefore, you must seal the vision, because, after many days, it will occur.”

~ The word signa can refer to sealing something or to signing something. In this case, the context indicates sealing.

{8:27} Et ego Daniel langui, et ægrotavi per dies: cumque surrexissem, faciebam opera regis, et stupebam ad visionem, et non erat qui interpretaretur.
{8:27} And I, Daniel, languished and was sick for some days, and when I had lifted myself up, I performed the king’s works, and I was astonished at the vision, and there was none who could interpret it.

[Daniel 9]

{9:1} In anno primo Darii filii Assueri de semine Medorum, qui imperavit super regnum Chaldæorum:
{9:1} In the first year of Darius, the son of Ahasuerus, of the offspring of the Medes, who ruled over the kingdom of the Chaldeans,

{9:2} Anno uno regni eius, ego Daniel intellexi in libris numerum annorum, de quo factus est sermo Domini ad Ieremiam prophetam, ut complerentur desolationis Ierusalem septuaginta anni.
{9:2} in year one of his reign, I, Daniel, understood in the books the number of the years, concerning the word of the Lord which came to Jeremiah, the prophet, that the desolation of Jerusalem would be completed in seventy years.

~ Daniel initially thinks he has understood the number of the years as seventy, but later he is told that it is seventy times seven years, or seventy weeks of years.

{9:3} Et posui faciem meam ad Dominum Deum meum rogare et deprecari in ieiuniis, sacco, et cinere.
{9:3} And I set my face to the Lord, my God, to ask and make supplication with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes.

{9:4} Et oravi Dominum Deum meum, et confessus sum, et dixi: Obsecro Domine Deus magne et terribilis, custodiens pactum, et misericordiam diligentibus te, et custodientibus mandata tua.
{9:4} And I prayed to the Lord, my God, and I confessed, and I said, “I beg you, O Lord God, great and terrible, preserving the covenant and mercy for those who love you and keep your commandments.

~ The word confessus is more literally translated as confessed, but is sometimes also translated as “gave thanks.” Even in English, the word confess can have a range of meanings which includes admitting ones errors and acknowledging God’s greatness (and thus thanking Him).

{9:5} Peccavimus, iniquitatem fecimus, impie egimus, et recessimus: et declinavimus a mandatis tuis, ac iudiciis.
{9:5} We have sinned, we have committed iniquity, we acted impiously and have withdrawn, and we have turned aside from your commandments as well as your judgments.

{9:6} Non obedivimus servis tuis prophetis, qui locuti sunt in nomine tuo regibus nostris, principibus nostris, patribus nostris, omnique populo terræ.
{9:6} We have not obeyed your servants, the prophets, who have spoken in your name to our kings, our leaders, our fathers, and all the people of the land.

{9:7} Tibi Domine iustitia: nobis autem confusio faciei, sicut est hodie viro Iuda, et habitatoribus Ierusalem, et omni Israel, his qui prope sunt, et his qui procul, in universis terris, ad quas eiecisti eos propter iniquitates eorum, in quibus peccaverunt in te.
{9:7} To you, O Lord, is justice, but to us is confusion of face, just as it is on this day for the men of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and all Israel, for those who are near and those who are far off, in all the lands to which you have driven them, because of their iniquities by which they have sinned against you.

{9:8} Domine nobis confusio faciei, regibus nostris, principibus nostris, et patribus nostris, qui peccaverunt.
{9:8} O Lord, to us belongs confusion of face: to our kings, our leaders, and our fathers, who have sinned.

{9:9} Tibi autem Domino Deo nostro misericordia, et propitiatio, quia recessimus a te:
{9:9} But to you, the Lord our God, is mercy and atonement, for we have withdrawn from you,

{9:10} et non audivimus vocem Domini Dei nostri ut ambularemus in lege eius, quam posuit nobis per servos suos prophetas.
{9:10} and we have not listened to the voice of the Lord, our God, so as to walk in his law, which he established for us by his servants, the prophets.

{9:11} Et omnis Israel prævaricati sunt legem tuam, et declinaverunt ne audirent vocem tuam, et stillavit super nos maledictio, et detestatio, quæ scripta est in libro Moysi servi Dei, quia peccavimus ei.
{9:11} And all Israel has transgressed your law and has turned away, not listening to your voice, and so the condemnation and the curse, which is written in the book of Moses, servant of God, has rained down upon us, because we have sinned against him.

~ Stillavit super nos means to fall in drops over us, in other words, to rain down upon us.

{9:12} Et statuit sermones suos, quos locutus est super nos, et super principes nostros, qui iudicaverunt nos, ut superinduceret in nos magnum malum, quale numquam fuit sub omni cælo, secundum quod factum est in Ierusalem.
{9:12} And he has fulfilled his words, which he has spoken over us and over our leaders who judged us, that he would lead over us a great evil, such as has never before existed under all of heaven, according to what has been done in Jerusalem.

{9:13} Sicut scriptum est in lege Moysi, omne malum hoc venit super nos: et non rogavimus faciem tuam Domine Deus noster, ut reverteremur ab iniquitatibus nostris, et cogitaremus veritatem tuam.
{9:13} Just as it has been written in the law of Moses, all this evil has come upon us, and we did not entreat your face, O Lord our God, so that we might turn back from our iniquities and consider your truth.

{9:14} Et vigilavit Dominus super malitiam, et adduxit eam super nos: iustus Dominus Deus noster in omnibus operibus suis, quæ fecit: non enim audivimus vocem eius.
{9:14} And the Lord kept watch over the evil and has led it over us; the Lord, our God, is just in all his works, which he has accomplished, for we have not listened to his voice.

{9:15} Et nunc Domine Deus noster, qui eduxisti populum tuum de terra Ægypti in manu forti, et fecisti tibi nomen secundum diem hanc: peccavimus, iniquitatem fecimus.
{9:15} And now, O Lord, our God, who has led your people out of the land of Egypt with a strong hand and has made yourself a name in accordance with this day: we have sinned, we have done wrong.

{9:16} Domine in omnem iustitiam tuam: avertatur, obsecro, ira tua, et furor tuus a civitate tua Ierusalem, et monte sancto tuo. Propter peccata enim nostra, et iniquitates patrum nostrorum, Ierusalem, et populus tuus in opprobrium sunt omnibus per circuitum nostrum.
{9:16} O Lord, for all your righteousness, turn away, I beg you, your anger and your fury from your city, Jerusalem, and from your holy mountain. For, because of our sins and the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and your people are a reproach to all who surround us.

{9:17} Nunc ergo exaudi Deus noster orationem servi tui, et preces eius: et ostende faciem tuam super sanctuarium tuum, quod desertum est propter temetipsum.
{9:17} Now, therefore, heed, O God, the prayer of your servant and his requests, and reveal your face over your sanctuary, which is desolate, for your own sake.

{9:18} Inclina Deus meus aurem tuam, et audi: aperi oculos tuos, et vide desolationem nostram, et civitatem, super quam invocatum est nomen tuum: neque enim in iustificationibus nostris prosternimus preces ante faciem tuam, sed in miserationibus tuis multis:
{9:18} Incline your ear, O my God, and hear, open your eyes and see our desolation and the city over which your name is invoked. For it is not through our justifications that we offer requests before your face, but through the fullness of your compassion.

{9:19} Exaudi Domine, placare Domine: attende et fac: ne moreris propter temetipsum Deus meus: quia nomen tuum invocatum est super civitatem, et super populum tuum.
{9:19} Heed, O Lord. Be pleased, O Lord. Turn and act. Do not delay, for your own sake, O my God, because your name is invoked over your city and over your people.”

{9:20} Cumque adhuc loquerer, et orarem, et confiterer peccata mea, et peccata populi mei Israel, et prosternerem preces meas in conspectu Dei mei, pro monte sancto Dei mei:
{9:20} And while I was still speaking and praying and confessing my sins, and the sins of my people, Israel, and offering my prayers in the sight of my God, on behalf of the holy mountain of my God,

{9:21} adhuc me loquente in oratione, ecce vir Gabriel, quem videram in visione a principio, cito volans tetigit me in tempore sacrificii vespertini.
{9:21} as I was still speaking in prayer, behold, the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, flying swiftly, touched me at the time of the evening sacrifice.

{9:22} Et docuit me, et locutus est mihi, dixitque: Daniel nunc egressus sum ut docerem te, et intelligeres.
{9:22} And he instructed me, and he spoke to me and said, “Now, Daniel, I have come forth to teach you and to help you understand.

{9:23} Ab exordio precum tuarum egressus est sermo: ego autem veni ut indicarem tibi, quia vir desideriorum es: tu ergo animadverte sermonem, et intellige visionem.
{9:23} At the beginning of your prayers, the message came forth, yet I have come to explain it to you because you are a man who is seeking. Therefore, you must pay close attention to the message and understand the vision.

~ Sermonem can mean word, but it often refers instead to something more general, to a concept or a message, of some kind.

{9:24} Septuaginta hebdomades abbreviatæ sunt super populum tuum, et super urbem sanctam tuam ut consummetur prævaricatio, et finem accipiat peccatum, et deleatur iniquitas, et adducatur iustitia sempiterna, et impleatur visio, et prophetia, et ungatur Sanctus sanctorum.
{9:24} Seventy weeks of years are concentrated on your people and on your holy city, so that transgression shall be finished, and sin shall reach an end, and iniquity shall be wiped away, and so that everlasting justice shall be brought in, and vision and prophecy shall be fulfilled, and the Saint of saints shall be anointed.

~ Literally, “Septuaginta hebdomades” means seventy groups of seven. Here the revelation to Daniel is correcting his misunderstanding; he thought it was seventy years, but the angel informs him it is actually seventy groups of seven (years). The translation uses “weeks of years” because years is clearly implied and because “weeks” is a concise way to say “groups of seven.”

{9:25} Scito ergo, et animadverte: Ab exitu sermonis, ut iterum ædificetur Ierusalem, usque ad Christum ducem, hebdomades septem, et hebdomades sexaginta duæ erunt: et rursum ædificabitur platea, et muri in angustia temporum.
{9:25} Therefore, know and take heed: from the going forth of the word to build up Jerusalem again, until the Christ leader, there will be seven weeks of years, and sixty-two weeks of years; and the wide path will be built again, and the walls, in a time of anguish.

~ The “Christum ducem” is quite a striking expression in the Latin; clearly, to a Christian mind, the translation of Christum as Christ is justified. But, in the case of the leader who arrives after only seven weeks of years, this is not Christ himself, but a Christ-like leader (the great monarch). In the case of the leader who arrives after the additional sixty-two weeks of years, again this cannot be Christ himself (since there is still one more week of years to be completed), but again a Christ-like leader (this time it refers to the king of the South, as well as the Pope). Some translations give the weaker and more ambiguous translation of “Anointed one.”

~ Interestingly, some Christians have misinterpreted the Christum ducem who arrives seven weeks of years after the rebuilding of Jerusalem (that is, after the founding of the State of Israel,) to mean that Christ himself would arrive at this early date (in the late 1990’s A.D.). Such an interpretation is not called for by the text itself.

{9:26} Et post hebdomades sexaginta duas occidetur Christus: et non erit eius populus, qui eum negaturus est. Et civitatem, et sanctuarium dissipabit populus cum duce venturo: et finis eius vastitas, et post finem belli statuta desolatio.
{9:26} And after sixty-two weeks of years, the Christ leader will be slain. And the people who have denied him will not be his. And the people, when their leader arrives, will destroy the city and the sanctuary. And its end will be devastation, and, after the end of the war, the desolation will be set up.

~ Again, the Christus who is killed is not Christ himself. Rather, this text refers to the king of the South, a Christian, a Christ-leader, the king of the last bastion of Christianity, the only one of the ten kingdoms that still tolerates Christianity. He is defeated in battle, because of betrayal or denial by some persons, but not by any people who are Christians. Some non-Christians betray him. Then the Antichrist and his people arrive in the Holy Land of Israel and destroy the city and the sanctuary. They also kill the Pope of that time, another Christ-leader. The desolation is the abomination of desolation, which begins at this time, but does not reach its full power until the last half of the Antichrist's reign.

{9:27} Confirmabit autem pactum multis hebdomada una: et in dimidio hebdomadis deficiet hostia et sacrificium: set erit in templo abominatio desolationis: et usque ad consummationem et finem perseverabit desolatio.
{9:27} But he will confirm a covenant with many for one week of years; and for half of the week of years, victim and sacrifice will nearly cease; but there will be in the temple the abomination of desolation. And the desolation will continue even to the consummation and the end.”

~ The phrase “hostia et sacrificium” could also be translated as “sacrifice and offering.” The phrase “abominatio desolationis” could also be rendered as “the detestable thing of abandonment.” From a Catholic perspective, the first phrase clearly refers to the Eucharist and the sacrifice of the Mass. Thus, the abomination of desolation is a perverse imitation of the Eucharist and the Mass, a false Eucharist, which continues for about three and one half years, even until the end of the Passion and Crucifixion of the Church and the end of the reign of sin on earth.

[Daniel 10]

{10:1} Anno tertio Cyri regis Persarum, verbum revelatum est Danieli cognomento Baltassar, et verbum verum, et fortitudo magna: intellexitque sermonem: intelligentia enim est opus in visione.
{10:1} In the third year of Cyrus, king of the Persians, a message was revealed to Daniel, called Belteshazzar, and a true word, and great strength. And he understood the message, for understanding is needed in a vision.

~ Or, for understanding is the work of a vision.

{10:2} In diebus illis ego Daniel lugebam trium hebdomadarum diebus,
{10:2} In those days, I, Daniel, mourned for three weeks of days.

{10:3} panem desiderabilem non comedi, et caro et vinum non introierunt in os meum, sed neque unguento unctus sum: donec complerentur trium hebdomadarum dies.
{10:3} I ate no desirable bread, and neither meat, nor wine, entered my mouth, neither was I anointed with ointment, until the three weeks of days were completed.

~ He ate no desirable bread, but he did eat bread of some kind. He fasted on bread and water.

{10:4} Die autem vigesima et quarta mensis primi eram iuxta fluvium magnum, qui est Tigris.
{10:4} But on the twenty-fourth day of the first month, I was next to the great river, which is the Tigris.

~ The first month is Nisan, when Passover is celebrated. But Daniel could not celebrate the feast in captivity, so he fasted instead.

{10:5} Et levavi oculos meos, et vidi: et ecce vir unus vestitus lineis, et renes eius accincti auro obrizo:
{10:5} And I lifted up my eyes, and I saw, and behold, one man clothed in linen, and his waist was wrapped with the finest gold,

~ Here renes, kidneys, is used to refer to the waistline, not specifically to refer to the kidneys. This is often, somewhat inaccurately translated as loins. The waistline, in current modern fashions, tends to be at the hips. But the waistline in ancient times was considerably higher, encircling the torso at the level of the kidneys.

{10:6} et corpus eius quasi chrysolithus, et facies eius velut species fulguris, et oculi eius ut lampas ardens: et brachia eius, et quæ deorsum sunt usque ad pedes, quasi species æris candentis: et vox sermonum eius ut vox multitudinis.
{10:6} and his body was like the golden stone, and his face had the appearance of lightning, and his eyes that of a burning lamp, and his arms and all that is downward all the way to the feet had the appearance of glowing brass, and his speaking voice was like the voice of a multitude.

~ The word chrysolithus takes its origins from Greek, in which language it literally means “golden stone.” Which mineral or gemstone the word refers to is largely irrelevant. The body of the angel is being described by the text as similar to a gemstone, and lightening, and a burning lamp, and glowing brass – all of which have a golden bright appearance.

{10:7} Vidi autem ego Daniel solus visionem: porro viri, qui erant mecum, non viderunt: sed terror nimius irruit super eos, et fugerunt in absconditum.
{10:7} But I, Daniel, alone saw the vision, for the men who were with me did not see it, but an exceedingly great terror rushed over them, and they fled into hiding.

{10:8} Ego autem relictus solus vidi visionem grandem hanc: et non remansit in me fortitudo, sed et species mea immutata est in me, et emarcui, nec habui quidquam virium.
{10:8} And I, having been left alone, saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me, moreover, my appearance was altered, and I languished, not having any strength.

{10:9} Et audivi vocem sermonum eius: et audiens iacebam consternatus super faciem meam, et vultus meus hærebat terræ.
{10:9} And I heard the voice of his words, and when I heard, I lay down in confusion on my face, and my face was close to the ground.

{10:10} Et ecce manus tetigit me, et erexit me super genua mea, et super articulos manuum mearum.
{10:10} And behold, a hand touched me, and raised me onto my knees and the knuckles of my hands.

{10:11} Et dixit ad me: Daniel vir desideriorum, intellige verba, quæ ego loquor ad te, et sta in gradu tuo: nunc enim sum missus ad te. Cumque dixisset mihi sermonem istum, steti tremens.
{10:11} And he said to me, “Daniel, man of longing, understand the words that I speak to you, and stand yourself upright, for I am now sent to you.” And when he had said these words to me, I stood trembling.

~ The phrase “vir desideriorum” is sometimes translated as “man of desire.” But the word vir is usually used in a complementary sense, and the word desire, in this context, is more like a longing for truth and justice, as seen by Daniel’s decisions and his search for the truth of the visions.

{10:12} Et ait ad me: Noli metuere Daniel: quia ex die primo, quo posuisti cor tuum ad intelligendum ut te affligeres in conspectu Dei tui, exaudita sunt verba tua: et ego veni propter sermones tuos.
{10:12} And he said to me, “Do not be afraid, Daniel, because from the first day that you set your heart to understand, by afflicting yourself in the sight of your God, your words have been heeded, and I have arrived because of your words.

{10:13} Princeps autem regni Persarum restitit mihi viginti et uno diebus: et ecce Michael unus de principibus primis venit in adiutorium meum, et ego remansi ibi iuxta regem Persarum.
{10:13} But the leader of the kingdom of the Persians resisted me for twenty-one days, and behold, Michael, one of the primary leaders, came to help me, and I remained there next to the king of the Persians.

{10:14} Veni autem ut docerem te quæ ventura sunt populo tuo in novissimis diebus, quoniam adhuc, visio in dies.
{10:14} But I have come to teach you what will happen to your people in the latter days, because the vision is for a long time from now.”

{10:15} Cumque loqueretur mihi huiuscemodi verbis, deieci vultum meum ad terram, et tacui.
{10:15} And while he was speaking words to me in this way, I cast my face down to the ground and was silent.

{10:16} Et ecce quasi similitudo filii hominis tetigit labia mea: et aperiens os meum locutus sum, et dixi ad eum, qui stabat contra me: domine mi, in visione tua dissolutæ sunt compages meæ, et nihil in me remansit virium.
{10:16} And behold, something in the likeness of a son of man touched my lips. Then, opening my mouth, I spoke and said to him who stood before me, “My lord, at the sight of you, my limbs became weak and no strength has remained in me.

{10:17} Et quomodo poterit servus domini mei loqui cum domino meo? nihil enim in me remansit virium, sed et halitus meus intercluditur.
{10:17} And so, how can the servant of my lord speak with my lord? For no strength remains in me; and even my breathing is hindered.”

{10:18} Rursum ergo tetigit me quasi visio hominis, et confortavit me,
{10:18} Therefore, he who looked like a man, touched me again and strengthened me.

{10:19} et dixit: Noli timere vir desideriorum: pax tibi: confortare, et esto robustus. Cumque loqueretur mecum, convalui, et dixi: Loquere Domine mi, quia confortasti me.
{10:19} And he said, “Fear not, O man of longing. May peace be with you. Take courage and be strong.” And when he spoke to me, I recovered, and I said, “Speak, my lord, for you have strengthened me.”

{10:20} Et ait: Numquid scis quare venerim ad te? et nunc revertar ut prœlier adversum principem Persarum; cum ego egrederer, apparuit princeps Græcorum veniens.
{10:20} And he said, “Do you not know why I have come to you? And next I will return, to fight against the leader of the Persians. When I was leaving, there appeared the leader of the Greeks arriving.

{10:21} Verumtamen annuntiabo tibi quod expressum est in scriptura veritatis: et nemo est adiutor meus in omnibus his, nisi Michael princeps vester.
{10:21} But, in truth, I announce to you what is expressed in the scripture of truth. And no one is my helper in all these things, except Michael your leader.”

~ The phrase “scriptura veritatis” refers to the Bible. The word “leader” is a better translation of “princeps” than the word “prince” would be.

[Daniel 11]

{11:1} Ego autem ab anno primo Darii Medi stabam ut confortaretur, et roboraretur.
{11:1} “And so, from the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood firm, so that he might be reinforced and strengthened.

~ The word fortis is used in Daniel to refer to the strength of the Christian faith. But here the word roboraretur is used instead. Thus, Darius the Mede is not a faithful Christian or Jew. The angel strengthens him for some purpose, but he is not a holy leader whose strength is from God.

{11:2} Et nunc veritatem annuntiabo tibi. Ecce adhuc tres reges stabunt in Perside, et quartus ditabitur opibus nimiis super omnes: et cum invaluerit divitiis suis, concitabit omnes adversum regnum Græciæ.
{11:2} And now I will announce to you the truth. Behold, up to a certain point, three kings will stand in Persia, and the fourth will be exceedingly enriched in power above them all. And when he has grown strong by his resources, he will stir up all against the kingdom of Greece.

{11:3} Surget vero rex fortis, et dominabitur potestate multa: et faciet quod placuerit ei.
{11:3} But there will rise up a strong king, and he will rule with great power, and he will do what he pleases.

~ This king is the long-awaited great monarch, a holy devout Catholic king. Here the word fortis is again used to refer to the strength of the Christian faith. This king is not merely strong in body or in worldly power, he has a strong in faith in God.

{11:4} Et cum steterit, conteretur regnum eius, et dividetur in quattuor ventos cæli: sed non in posteros eius, neque secundum potentiam illius, qua dominatus est; lacerabitur enim regnum eius etiam in externos exceptis his.
{11:4} And when he has been firmly established, his kingdom will be shattered and will be divided towards the four winds of the heaven, but not to his posterity, nor according to his power with which he ruled. For his kingdom will be torn to pieces, even for the outsiders who have been expelled from these.

~ The word “lacerabitur” has a meaning like: mangled, or wounded, or lacerated, but also (esp. in this context) means torn into pieces. Not a happy day for this kingdom. The externos or outsiders are those outside the Catholic faith or who have been “exceptis his” that is, who have been expelled from the Church.

{11:5} Et confortabitur rex Austri: et de principibus eius prævalebit super eum, et dominabitur ditione: multa enim dominatio eius.
{11:5} And the king of the South will be reinforced, yet one of his leaders will prevail over him, and he will rule with riches, for great is his domain.

~ Notice that now we are told about the South, Austri, whereas before we were told about the Meridian, the area near the equator.

{11:6} Et post finem annorum fœderabuntur: filiaque regis Austri veniet ad regem Aquilonis facere amicitiam, et non obtinebit fortitudinem brachii, nec stabit semen eius: et tradetur ipsa, et qui adduxerunt eam, adolescentes eius, et qui confortabant eam in temporibus.
{11:6} And after the end of years, they will form a federation, and the daughter of the king of the South will come to the king of the North to make friendship, but she will not obtain the strength of arms, neither will her offspring stand firm, and she will be handed over, along with those who brought her, her young men, and those who comforted her in these times.

~ A federation, or a league, or an alliance.

{11:7} Et stabit de germine radicum eius plantatio: et veniet cum exercitu, et ingredietur provinciam regis Aquilonis: et abutetur eis, et obtinebit.
{11:7} And a transplant from the germination of her roots will stand up, and he will come with an army, and will enter into the province of the king of the North, and he will abuse them, and will hold it fast.

~ The phrase “germine radicum eius plantation” is an unusual expression, which probably refers to some type of unusual medical technology used (in the distant future) in procreation. In modern terms, this sounds like something having to do with unnatural conception and birth, something similar to in vitro fertilization, or surrogate mothering, or human cloning.

{11:8} Insuper et deos eorum, et sculptilia, vasa quoque pretiosa argenti, et auri captiva ducet in Ægyptum: ipse prævalebit adversus regem Aquilonis.
{11:8} And, in addition, he will carry away captive into Egypt their gods, and their graven images, and likewise their precious vessels of gold and silver. He will prevail against the king of the North.

{11:9} Et intrabit in regnum rex Austri, et revertetur ad terram suam.
{11:9} And the king of the South will enter into the kingdom, and will return to his own land.

{11:10} Filii autem eius provocabuntur, et congregabunt multitudinem exercituum plurimorum: et veniet properans, et inundans: et revertetur, et concitabitur, et congredietur cum robere eius.
{11:10} But his sons will be challenged, and they will assemble a multitude of very many forces. And he will arrive rushing and overflowing. And he will be turned back, and he will be enraged, and he will join the battle in his redness.

~ Even though the translation is the literal “sons” the meaning might be metaphorical. The reference to the king’s redness, robere eius, means that the king will be either angry or embarrassed. The word provocabuntur can also be translated as provoked.

{11:11} Et provocatus rex Austri egredietur, et pugnabit adversus regem Aquilonis, et præparabit multitudinem nimiam, et dabitur multitudo in manu eius.
{11:11} And the king of the South, having being challenged, will go forth and will fight against the king of the North, and he will prepare an exceedingly great multitude, and a multitude will be given into his hand.

{11:12} Et capiet multitudinem, et exaltabitur cor eius, et deiiciet multa millia, sed non prævalebit.
{11:12} And he will seize a multitude, and his heart will be exalted, and he will cast down many thousands, but he will not prevail.

{11:13} Convertetur enim rex Aquilonis, et præparabit multitudinem multo maiorem quam prius: et in fine temporum, annorumque veniet properans cum exercitu magno, et opibus nimiis.
{11:13} For the king of the North will change strategy and will prepare a multitude much greater than before, and at the end of times and years, he will rush forward with a great army and exceedingly great resources.

~ Usually, opibus is translated as power or wealth, but in this context it means something like resources, though with a distinct military connotation.

{11:14} Et in temporibus illis multi consurgent adversus regem Austri: filii quoque prævaricatorum populi tui extollentur ut impleant visionem, et corruent.
{11:14} And in those times, many will rise up against the king of the South. And likewise the sons of the deceivers among your people will extol themselves, so as to fulfill the vision, and they will collapse.

~ The phrase “filii prævaricatorum populi tui” literally means the sons of the deceivers (or traitors) of your people. But the word “sons” is often used metaphorically in Jewish literature. The sons of the deceivers are not the biological offspring of deceivers, but those who act as if they were the offspring of deception personified.

{11:15} Et venit rex Aquilonis, et comportabit aggerem, et capiet urbes munitissimas: et brachia Austri non sustinebunt, et consurgent electi eius ad resistendum, et non erit fortitudo.
{11:15} And the king of the North will arrive and will transport siege works, and he will seize the most fortified cities. And the arms of the South will not withstand him, and his elect will rise up to resist, but the strength will not.

{11:16} Et faciet veniens super eum iuxta placitum suum, et non erit qui stet contra faciem eius: et stabit in terra inclyta, et consumetur in manu eius.
{11:16} And when he arrives, he will do just as he pleases, and there will be none who stand against his face. And he will stand in the illustrious land, and it will be consumed by his hand.

~ The illustrious land might seem to be the holy land of Israel, but the expression in Latin used here is somewhat different from other expressions referring to the land of Israel, so perhaps a different interpretation is indicated.

{11:17} Et ponet faciem suam ut veniat ad tenendum universum regnum eius, et recta faciet cum eo: et filiam feminarum dabit ei, ut evertat illud: et non stabit, nec illius erit.
{11:17} And he will set his face to strive to hold his entire kingdom, and he will make fair conditions with him. And he will give him a daughter among women, so as to overthrow it. But she will not stand, neither will she be for him.

~ A woman among women is an exemplary woman (cf. song of songs). But the phrase a daughter among women is an unusual twist on the more common expression of a woman among women. From the context and from the expression, this phrase would still seem somewhat complementary. She is an exemplary woman – but so young as to be called a daughter rather than a woman. An exemplary young woman, and perhaps the meaning is also that she is too young for the task she has been given. In any case, she fails at her unenviable task and she does not remain with him.

{11:18} Et convertet faciem suam ad insulas, et capiet multas: et cessare faciet principem opprobrii sui, et opprobrium eius convertetur in eum.
{11:18} And he will turn his face towards the islands, and he will seize many. And he will cause the leader of his reproach to cease, and his reproach will be turned around for him.

{11:19} Et convertet faciem suam ad imperium terræ suæ, et impinget, et corruet, et non invenietur.
{11:19} And he will turn his face to the empire of his own land, and he will strike, and will overthrow, but he will not succeed.

{11:20} Et stabit in loco eius vilissimus, et indignus decore regio: et in paucis diebus conteretur, non in furore, nec in prœlio.
{11:20} And there will stand up in his place one who is most worthless and unworthy of kingly honor. And in a short time, he will be worn out, but not in fury, nor in battle.

{11:21} Et stabit in loco eius despectus, et non tribuetur ei honor regius: et veniet clam, et obtinebit regnum in fraudulentia.
{11:21} And there will stand up in his place the despicable one, and he will not be assigned the honor of a king. And he will arrive in secret, and he will obtain the kingdom by deceitfulness.

~ The despectus is the despicable one, the Antichrist.

{11:22} Et brachia pugnantis expugnabuntur a facie eius, et conterentur: insuper et dux fœderis.
{11:22} And the arms of the fighting will be assaulted before his face and will be shattered, and, in addition, the leader of the federation.

{11:23} Et post amicitias, cum eo faciet dolum: et ascendet, et superabit in modico populo.
{11:23} And, after making friends, he will trick him, and he will go up and will overcome with a small people.

~ The phrase “modico populo” can mean a small people (not influential), or people who are short of stature, or people who are moderate and restrained, or people who are a short distance away. The phrase is quite ambiguous, in and of itself.

{11:24} Et abundantes, et uberes urbes ingredietur: et faciet quæ non fecerunt patres eius, et patres patrum eius: rapinas, et prædam, et divitias eorum dissipabit, et contra firmissimas cogitationes inibit: et hoc usque ad tempus.
{11:24} And he will enter into rich and resourceful cities, and he will do what his fathers never did, nor his fathers’ fathers. He will scatter their spoils, and their prey, and their riches, and will form a plan against the most steadfast, and this until a time.

~ The word rapinas resembles the English word rape, and can mean rape in some contexts. But it tends to have a more general meaning, something like assault (including robbery) and/or the loot obtained from such a robbery. The most steadfast would seem to be the Christians.

{11:25} Et concitabitur fortitudo eius, et cor eius adversum regem Austri in exercitu magno: et rex Austri provocabitur ad bellum multis auxiliis, et fortibus nimis: et non stabunt, quia inibunt adversus eum consilia.
{11:25} And his strength and his heart will be enraged against the king of the South with a great army. And the king of the South will be provoked into going to war by having many allies and exceedingly good circumstances, and yet these will not stand, for they will form plans against him.

~ The king of the South is not foolish or rash, he knows it is very dangerous to go to war against the North – the only kingdom which can and has repeatedly defeated the South in war. But he will have so many things in his favor, including allies and good fortune, that he enters into a war that he ultimately will lose.

{11:26} Et comedentes panem cum eo, conterent illum, exercitusque eius opprimetur: et cadent interfecti plurimi.
{11:26} And those who eat bread with him will crush him, and his army will be suppressed, and very many will die, having been executed.

~ “Et comedentes panem cum eo,” (those who eat bread with him,) could well be a reference to the Eucharist. The king of the South and his kingdom may be the last refuge of Christianity, but it is a sinful kingdom, not a holy one. Here the Antichrist uses unfaithful Christians to help him overcome the kingdom where Christianity has the most influence. Later, he uses a similar tactic (in promoting the abomination of desolation).

{11:27} Duorum quoque regnum cor erit ut malefaciant, et ad mensam unam mendacium loquentur, et non proficient: quia adhuc finis in aliud tempus.
{11:27} And the heart of two kings will be similar, to do harm, and they will speak lies at one table, but they will not succeed, because as yet the end is for another time.

~ These two other kings are the kings of the East and of the Meridian (Africa). They realize the danger of the Antichrist and try to outmaneuver and out-deceive him. The word “malefaciant” can mean to do evil, but in this context (of trying to defeat the Antichrist), it tends more towards the meaning of doing harm.

{11:28} Et revertetur in terram suam cum opibus multis: et cor eius adversum testamentum sanctum, et faciet, et revertetur in terram suam.
{11:28} And he will return to his land with many resources. And his heart will be against the holy testament, and he will act, and he will return to his own land.

~ The holy testament is the Christian faith. He acts against Christianity in the conquered land of the South, where Christianity is strongest, and in the two conquered lands of the two kings.

{11:29} Statuto tempore revertetur, et veniet ad Austrum: et non erit priori simile novissimum.
{11:29} At the appointed time, he will return, and he will approach the South, but the latter time will not be like the former.

{11:30} Et veniet super eum Trieres, et Romani: et percutietur, et revertetur, et indignabitur contra testamentum sanctuarii, et faciet: reverteturque et cogitabit adversum eos, qui dereliquerunt testamentum sanctuarii.
{11:30} And the Greek warships and the Romans will come upon him, and he will be pierced, and will retreat, and will have scorn against the testament of the sanctuary, and he will act. And he will return and will consult their adversaries, who have forsaken the covenant of the sanctuary.

~ This text is translated quite differently in other English texts. RSV: “ships of Kittim,” NIV: “Ships of the western coastlands,” NKJV: “ships from Cyprus,” NIRV: “Roman ships,” NLT: “warships from western coastlands.” The Bible has been translated into Latin since the earliest days of the Church, so this Latin text (Trieres, et Romani) may be based on some ancient manuscripts, in Hebrew or Greek, which are not now extant.

~ The Trieres is a type of warship used by the ancient Greeks. But in Daniel, Greece symbolizes democracy, since that is where democracy first began. So, giving the text a modern interpretation, these warships are from an area which still, at that time in the future, practices some form of democracy. But, though the ships are Greek ships, the crew is Roman, which in the modern context would refer to Roman Catholics (or to Christians in general during a future time when all Christians are united in one Church). This interpretation explains why the Antichrist is indignant against Christianity after his defeat and why he sets out to destroy the Faith about halfway through his reign. Daniel 9:27 refers to this time of half a week of years.

~ The Antichrist then consults the adversaries of the Christians, those who have abandoned the Christian faith.

{11:31} Et brachia ex eo stabunt, et polluent sanctuarium fortitudinis, et auferent iuge sacrificium: et dabunt abominationem in desolationem.
{11:31} And arms will take his side, and they will pollute the sanctuary of the strength, and they will take away the continual sacrifice and will replace it with the abomination of desolation.

~ Here again the word strength is used to refer to Christianity, as in the sanctuary of the strength, which will be polluted by the abomination of desolation (a false Eucharist). The continual sacrifice is the Eucharist.

{11:32} Et impii in testamentum simulabunt fraudulenter: populus autem sciens Deum suum, obtinebit, et faciet.
{11:32} And the impious within the testament will imitate deceitfully, but the people, knowing their God, will persevere and will act.

{11:33} Et docti in populo docebunt plurimos: et ruent in gladio, et in flamma, et in captivitate, et in rapina dierum.
{11:33} And the teachers among the people will teach many, but they will be ruined by the sword, and by fire, and by captivity, and by assaults for many days.

~ The word rapina can mean sexual assault. In other contexts, rapina tends more towards robbery or even the loot obtained by robbery, but in this context rapina refers to physical assaults of various kinds.

{11:34} Cumque corruerint, sublevabuntur auxilio parvulo: et applicabuntur eis plurimi fraudulenter.
{11:34} And when they have fallen, they will be supported with a little help, but many will apply to them deceitfully.

{11:35} Et de eruditis ruent, ut conflentur, et eligantur, et dealbentur usque ad tempus præfinitum: quia adhuc aliud tempus erit.
{11:35} And some of the learned will be ruined, that they may be kindled and chosen and purified, up to the predetermined time, because there will be still another time.

~ The learned are not pure and on fire with the love of God; but some will be brought to this by suffering. Not many, just some. The very learned tend not to be very faithful nor very holy.

{11:36} Et faciet iuxta voluntatem suam rex, et elevabitur, et magnificabitur adversus omnem deum: et adversus Deum deorum loquetur magnifica, et dirigetur, donec compleatur iracundia: perpetrata quippe est definitio.
{11:36} And the king will act according to his will, and he will be lifted up and will be extolled against every god. And he will speak great things against the God of gods, and he will control, until the passion is completed. Once accomplished, the limit is reached with certainty.

~ The word “iracundia” can refer to anger and is sometimes translated in this context as wrath, that is, until the wrath of God is completed. But such a translation does not fit the context well. The verse is about the Antichrist exalting himself, and acting according to his ill will, and controlling the world, and blaspheming God. This is not yet the Wrath of God on the unrepentant wicked. In this context, the phrase refers to the Passion of the Church, that is, to the great sufferings of the faithful during the reign of the Antichrist.

{11:37} Et Deum patrum suorum non reputabit: et erit in concupiscentiis feminarum, nec quemquam deorum curabit: quia adversum universa consurget:
{11:37} And he will give no thought to the God of his fathers, and he will be in the desire of women, and he will not attend to any gods, because he will rise up against all things.

~ The phrase “erit in concupiscentiis feminarum” does not mean that he will lust after women, but that women will lust for him.

{11:38} deum autem Maozim in loco suo venerabitur: et deum, quem ignoraverunt patres eius, colet auro, et argento, et lapide pretioso, rebusque pretiosis.
{11:38} But he will do homage to the god Maozim in his place, and, a god whom his fathers did not know, he will worship with gold, and silver, and precious stones, and costly things.

{11:39} Et faciet ut muniat Maozim cum deo alieno, quem cognovit, et multiplicabit gloriam, et dabit eis potestatem in multis, et terram dividet gratuito.
{11:39} And he will act to reinforce Maozim with an alien god, of whom he has become aware, and he will increase their glory, and will give them power over many, and he will distribute land for free.

{11:40} Et in tempore præfinito prœliabitur adversus eum rex Austri, et quasi tempestas veniet contra illum rex Aquilonis in curribus, et in equitibus, et in classe magna, et ingredietur terras, et conteret, et pertransiet.
{11:40} And, at the predetermined time, the king of the South will fight against him, and the king of the North will come against him like a tempest, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with a great fleet, and he will enter into the lands, and will crush and pass through.

{11:41} Et introibit in terram gloriosam, et multæ corruent: hæ autem solæ salvabuntur de manu eius, Edom, et Moab, et principium filiorum Ammon.
{11:41} And he will enter into the glorious land, and many will fall. But only these will be saved from his hand: Edom, and Moab, and the first part of the sons of Ammon.

~ The illustrious land, terra inclyta, (Dan 11:16) is probably a different land than the glorious land, terram gloriosam. The glorious land appears to be Israel, the holy land.

{11:42} Et mittet manum suam in terras: et terra Ægypti non effugiet.
{11:42} And he will cast his hand upon the lands, and the land of Egypt will not escape.

{11:43} Et dominabitur thesaurorum auri, et argenti, et in omnibus pretiosis Ægypti: per Libyam quoque, et Æthiopiam transibit.
{11:43} And he will rule over the treasure chests of gold, and silver, and all the precious things of Egypt, and likewise he will pass through Libya and Ethiopia.

{11:44} Et fama turbabit eum ab Oriente et ab Aquilone: et veniet in multitudine magna ut conterat et interficiat plurimos.
{11:44} And rumors from the East and from the North will trouble him. And he will arrive with a great multitude to destroy and to execute many.

~ Fama is rumors, or news, or reports. The word interficiat implies that the killing is an execution, from governmental authority (whether legitimate or not), and not a killing in battle.

{11:45} Et figet tabernaculum suum Apadno inter maria, super montem inclytum et sanctum: et veniet usque ad summitatem eius, et nemo auxiliabitur ei.
{11:45} And he will fasten his tabernacle, Apadno, between the seas, upon an illustrious and holy mountain, and he will come even to its summit, and no one will help him.”

~ Again, illustrious would seem to indicate a different land than the glorious land of Israel.

[Daniel 12]

{12:1} In tempore autem illo consurget Michael princeps magnus, qui stat pro filiis populi tui: et veniet tempus quale non fuit ab eo ex quo gentes esse cœperunt usque ad tempus illud. Et in tempore illo salvabitur populus tuus, omnis qui inventus fuerit scriptus in libro.
{12:1} “But at that time Michael will rise up, the great leader, who stands up for the sons of your people. And a time will come, such as has not been from the time that nations began, even until that time. And, at that time, your people will be saved, all who will be found written in the book.

{12:2} Et multi de his, qui dormiunt in terræ pulvere, evigilabunt: alii in vitam æternam, et alii in opprobrium ut videant semper.
{12:2} And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth will awaken: some to everlasting life, and others to a reproach that they will always see.

{12:3} Qui autem docti fuerint, fulgebunt quasi splendor firmamenti: et qui ad iustitiam erudiunt multos, quasi stellæ in perpetuas æternitates.
{12:3} But those who have taught will shine like the brightness of the firmament, and those who instruct many towards justice, like the stars for unending eternity.

{12:4} Tu autem Daniel claude sermones, et signa librum usque ad tempus statutum: plurimi pertransibunt, et multiplex erit scientia.
{12:4} But you, Daniel, close the message and seal the book, until the established time. Many will pass through, and knowledge will be increased.”

~ The phrase “plurimi pertransibunt” refers to the passage of time. Many generations will pass through between the time of Daniel and the events of his visions.

{12:5} Et vidi ego Daniel, et ecce quasi duo alii stabant: unus hinc super ripam fluminis, et alius inde ex altera ripa fluminis.
{12:5} And I, Daniel, looked, and behold, similarly two others stood up, one over here, on the bank of the river, and the other over there, on the other bank of the river.

{12:6} Et dixi viro, qui erat indutus lineis, qui stabat super aquas fluminis: Usquequo finis horum mirabilium?
{12:6} And I said to the man, who was clothed in linen, who stood over the waters of the river, “How long will it be until the end of these wonders?”

{12:7} Et audivi virum, qui indutus erat lineis, qui stabat super aquas fluminis, cum elevasset dexteram et sinistram suam in cælum, et iurasset per Viventem in æternum, quia in tempus, et tempora, et dimidium temporis. Et cum completa fuerit dispersio manus populi sancti, complebuntur universa hæc.
{12:7} And I heard the man, who was clothed in linen, who stood over the waters of the river, when he had lifted his right hand and his left hand up to heaven, and had sworn by He who lives forever, that it would be for a time, and times, and half a time. And when the dispersion of the hand of the holy people is completed, all these things will be completed.

~ The word manus, usually translated as hand, can also mean a band or small group of people, especially soldiers.

{12:8} Et ego audivi, et non intellexi. Et dixi: Domine mi, quid erit post hæc?
{12:8} And I heard and did not understand. And I said, “My lord, what will be after these things?”

{12:9} Et ait: Vade Daniel, quia clausi sunt, signatique sermones usque ad præfinitum tempus.
{12:9} And he said, “Go, Daniel, for the words are closed and sealed until the predetermined time.

{12:10} Eligentur, et dealbabuntur, et quasi ignis probabuntur multi: et impie agent impii, neque intelligent omnes impii, porro docti intelligent.
{12:10} Many will be chosen and purified, and, as if by fire, they will be tested, and the impious will act impiously, and none of the impious will understand, yet the teachers will understand.

{12:11} Et a tempore cum ablatum fuerit iuge sacrificium, et posita fuerit abominatio in desolationem, dies mille ducenti nonaginta.
{12:11} And from the time when the continual sacrifice will be taken away and the abomination of desolation will be set up, there will be one thousand two hundred ninety days.

{12:12} Beatus, qui expectat, et pervenit usque ad dies mille trecentos trigintaquinque.
{12:12} Blessed is he who waits and reaches until one thousand three hundred thirty-five days.

{12:13} Tu autem vade ad præfinitum: et requiesces, et stabis in sorte tua in finem dierum.
{12:13} But you, go, until the predetermined time, and you will rest and will stand in your allotted place at the end of days.

[Daniel 13]

{13:1} Et erat vir habitans in Babylone, et nomen eius Ioakim:
{13:1} And there was a man living in Babylon, and his name was Joakim.

{13:2} Et accepit uxorem nomine Susannam, filiam Helciæ pulchram nimis, et timentem Deum:
{13:2} And he received a wife named Susanna, the daughter of Hilkiah, who was very beautiful and God-fearing.

{13:3} parentes enim illius, cum essent iusti, erudierunt filiam suam secundum legem Moysi.
{13:3} For her parents, because they were righteous, had educated their daughter according to the law of Moses.

{13:4} Erat autem Ioakim dives valde, et erat ei pomarium vicinum domui suæ: et ad ipsum confluebant Iudæi, eo quod esset honorabilior omnium.
{13:4} But Joakim was very wealthy, and he had an orchard near his house, and the Jews flocked to him, because he was the most honorable of them all.

{13:5} Et constituti sunt de populo duo senes iudices in illo anno: de quibus locutus est Dominus: Quia egressa est iniquitas de Babylone a senioribus iudicibus, qui videbantur regere populum.
{13:5} And two elder judges had been appointed among the people that year, about whom the Lord has said, “Iniquity has come out of Babylon, from the elder judges, who seemed to govern the people.”

~ One of the terms used to describe these two judges is “senes iudices,” elder judges.

{13:6} Isti frequentabant domum Ioakim, et veniebant ad eos omnes, qui habebant iudicia.
{13:6} These frequented the house of Joakim, and all came to them, who had need of judgment.

{13:7} Cum autem populus revertisset per meridiem, ingrediebatur Susanna, et deambulabat in pomario viri sui.
{13:7} But when the people departed at noontime, Susanna went in and walked around in her husband’s orchard.

~ Deambulabat means to walk around or to take a walk, it does not merely mean walking.

{13:8} Et videbant eam senes quotidie ingredientem, et deambulantem: et exarserunt in concupiscentiam eius:
{13:8} And the elders saw her entering and walking around every day, and they were inflamed with desire towards her.

{13:9} et everterunt sensum suum, et declinaverunt oculos suos ut non viderent cælum, neque recordarentur iudiciorum iustorum.
{13:9} And they perverted their reason and turned away their eyes, so that they would not look to heaven, nor call to mind just judgments.

~ Sensum can also mean mind or understanding.

{13:10} Erant ergo ambo vulnerati amore eius, nec indicaverunt sibi vicissim dolorem suum:
{13:10} And so they were both wounded by the love of her, yet they did not reveal their grief to one another.

{13:11} erubescebant enim indicare sibi concupiscentiam suam, volentes concumbere cum ea:
{13:11} For they were ashamed to reveal to each other their desire, wanting to lie with her.

~ Here is one way to refer to sexual relations: concumbere, to lie with (someone).

{13:12} et observabant quotidie solicitius videre eam. Dixitque alter ad alterum:
{13:12} And so they watched carefully every day to see her. And one said to the other,

{13:13} Eamus domum, quia hora prandii est. Et egressi recesserunt a se.
{13:13} “Let us go home, for it is lunch time.” And going out, they departed one from another.

{13:14} Cumque revertissent, venerunt in unum: et sciscitantes ab invicem causam, confessi sunt concupiscentiam suam: et tunc in communi statuerunt tempus, quando eam possent invenire solam.
{13:14} And returning again, they came to the same place, and, each asking the other the reason, they admitted their desire. And then they agreed to set a time when they would be able to find her alone.

{13:15} Factum est autem, cum observarent diem aptum, ingressa est aliquando sicut heri et nudiustertius, cum duabus solis puellis, voluitque lavari in pomario: æstus quippe erat:
{13:15} But it happened, while they watched for an opportune day, that she entered at a particular time, just as yesterday and the day before, with only two maids, and she wanted to wash in the orchard, because it was so hot.

~ The word quippe means “of course” or “naturally” or “as you see.” Literally, the phrase says “it was, of course, very hot.”

{13:16} et non erat ibi quisquam, præter duos senes absconditos, et contemplantes eam.
{13:16} And there was no one there, except the two elders in hiding, and they were studying her.

{13:17} Dixit ergo puellis: Afferte mihi oleum, et smegmata, et ostia pomarii claudite, ut laver.
{13:17} And so she said to the maids, “Bring me oil and ointments, and shut the doors of the orchard, so that I may wash.”

~ The word smegmata is obscure, translated as “washing balls” by the Douay-Rheims and, alternately, as “ointments.” It refers to whatever type of soap or other substance the persons of that time and place used to wash themselves.

{13:18} Et fecerunt sicut præceperat: clauseruntque ostia pomarii, et egressæ sunt per posticum ut afferrent quæ iusserat: nesciebantque senes intus esse absconditos.
{13:18} And they did as she ordered them. And they shut the doors of the orchard and left through a back door to fetch what she required, and they did not know that the elders were hiding within.

{13:19} Cum autem egressæ essent puellæ, surrexerunt duo senes, et accurrerunt ad eam, et dixerunt:
{13:19} But when the maids had departed, the two elders arose and hurried to her, and they said,

{13:20} Ecce ostia pomarii clausa sunt, et nemo nos videt, et nos in concupiscentia tui sumus: quam ob rem assentire nobis, et commiscere nobiscum.
{13:20} “Behold, the doors of the orchard are closed, and no one can see us, and we are in desire for you. Because of these things, consent to us and lie with us.

~ Here is another way to refer to sexual relations: commiscere, to intermingle or to unite.

{13:21} Quod si nolueris, dicemus contra te testimonium, quod fuerit tecum iuvenis, et ob hanc causam emiseris puellas a te.
{13:21} But if you will not, we will bear witness against you that a young man was with you and, for this reason, you sent your maids away from you.”

{13:22} Ingemuit Susanna, et ait: Angustiæ sunt mihi undique: si enim hoc egero, mors mihi est: si autem non egero, non effugiam manus vestras.
{13:22} Susanna sighed and said, “I am closed in on every side. For if I do this thing, it is death to me; yet if I do not do it, I will not escape your hands.

{13:23} Sed melius est mihi absque opere incidere in manus vestras, quam peccare in conspectu Domini.
{13:23} But it is better for me to fall unavoidably into your hands, than to sin in the sight of the Lord.”

{13:24} Et exclamavit voce magna Susanna: exclamaverunt autem et senes adversus eam.
{13:24} And Susanna cried out with a loud voice, but the elders also cried out against her.

{13:25} Et cucurrit unus ad ostia pomarii, et aperuit.
{13:25} And one of them hurried to the door of the orchard and opened it.

~ So the door was closed, which would not be the case if a young man had just been chased out of it.

{13:26} Cum ergo audissent clamorem famuli domus in pomario, irruerunt per posticum ut viderent quidnam esset.
{13:26} And so, when the servants of the house heard the outcry in the orchard, they rushed in by the back door to see what was happening.

{13:27} Postquam autem senes locuti sunt, erubuerunt servi vehementer: quia numquam dictus fuerat sermo huiuscemodi de Susanna. Et facta est dies crastina:
{13:27} But after the old men had spoken, the servants were greatly ashamed, for there had never been anything of this kind said about Susanna. And it happened on the next day,

{13:28} cumque venisset populus ad Ioakim virum eius, venerunt et duo presbyteri pleni iniqua cogitatione adversus Susannam ut interficerent eam.
{13:28} when the people came to Joakim her husband, that the two appointed elders also came, full of wicked plans against Susanna, in order to put her to death.

~ Here the elders are referred to as “presbyteri,” a word which could be translated as elders, but which indicates that these were elders who were appointed to a position of leadership, appointed elders.

{13:29} Et dixerunt coram populo: Mittite ad Susannam filiam Helciæ uxorem Ioakim. Et statim miserunt.
{13:29} And they said before the people, “Send for Susanna, daughter of Hilkiah, the wife of Joakim.” And immediately they sent for her.

{13:30} Et venit cum parentibus, et filiis, et universis cognatis suis.
{13:30} And she arrived with her parents, and sons, and all her relatives.

~ The word cognatis means relatives, but resembles the word for knowing, and so, it is those who knew her well.

{13:31} Porro Susanna erat delicata nimis, et pulchra specie.
{13:31} Moreover, Susanna was exceedingly delicate and beautiful in appearance.

{13:32} At iniqui illi iusserunt ut discooperiretur (erat enim cooperta) ut vel sic satiarentur decore eius.
{13:32} But those wicked ones commanded that her face should be uncovered, (for she was covered,) so that at least they might be satisfied with her beauty.

~ Now the elders are referred to as iniqui, wicked ones.

{13:33} Flebant igitur sui, et omnes qui noverant eam.
{13:33} Therefore, her own and all who knew her wept.

{13:34} Consurgentes autem duo presbyteri in medio populi, posuerunt manus suas super caput eius.
{13:34} Yet the two appointed elders, rising up in the midst of the people, set their hands upon her head.

~ They not only uncovered her face, they dared to touch her, thus showing their lack of chastity and self-restraint by their actions.

{13:35} Quæ flens suspexit ad cælum: erat enim cor eius fiduciam habens in Domino.
{13:35} And weeping, she gazed up to heaven, for her heart had faith in the Lord.

{13:36} Et dixerunt presbyteri: Cum deambularemus in pomario soli, ingressa est hæc cum duabus puellis: et clausit ostia pomarii, et dimisit a se puellas.
{13:36} And the appointed elders said, “While we were taking a walk in the orchard alone, this one came in with two maids, and she shut the doors of the orchard, and she sent the maids away from her.

{13:37} Venitque ad eam adolescens, qui erat absconditus, et concubuit cum ea.
{13:37} And a young man came to her, who was in hiding, and he lay down with her.

~ Again, sexual relations is referred to with the word concubuit, to lie with someone.

{13:38} Porro nos cum essemus in angulo pomarii, videntes iniquitatem, cucurrimus ad eos, et vidimus eos pariter commisceri.
{13:38} Furthermore, since we were in a corner of the orchard, seeing this wickedness, we ran up to them, and we saw them consorting together.

~ Now the word commisceri, to intermingle is used to refer to sexual relations. Both of these expressions are somewhat euphemistic: to lie together or to intermingle. But both expressions are also fairly blunt and show, in the social and religious context of this story, that the elders are unchaste and unrestrained with their words.

{13:39} Et illum quidem non quivimus comprehendere, quia fortior nobis erat, et apertis ostiis exilivit:
{13:39} And, indeed, we were unable to catch him, because he was stronger than us, and opening the doors, he leaped out.

{13:40} hanc autem cum apprehendissemus, interrogavimus, quisnam esset adolescens, et noluit indicare nobis: huius rei testes sumus.
{13:40} But, since we had apprehended this one, we demanded to know who the young man was, but she was unwilling to tell us. On this matter, we are witnesses.”

{13:41} Credidit eis multitudo quasi senibus et iudicibus populi, et condemnaverunt eam ad mortem.
{13:41} The multitude believed them, just as if they were elders and the judges of the people, and they condemned her to death.

{13:42} Exclamavit autem voce magna Susanna, et dixit: Deus æterne, qui absconditorum es cognitor, qui nosti omnia antequam fiant,
{13:42} But Susanna cried out with a loud voice and said, “Eternal God, who knows what is hidden, who knows all things before they happen,

{13:43} tu scis quoniam falsum testimonium tulerunt contra me: et ecce morior, cum nihil horum fecerim, quæ isti malitiose composuerunt adversum me.
{13:43} you know that they have borne false witness against me, and behold, I must die, though I have done none of these things, which these men have maliciously invented against me.”

~ Susanna shows her chastity and self-restraint by not even repeating explicitly the charge against herself.

{13:44} Exaudivit autem Dominus vocem eius.
{13:44} But the Lord heeded her voice.

{13:45} Cumque duceretur ad mortem, suscitavit Dominus spiritum sanctum pueri iunioris, cuius nomen Daniel:
{13:45} And when she was led away to death, the Lord raised up the holy spirit of a young boy, whose name was Daniel.

{13:46} Et exclamavit voce magna: Mundus ego sum a sanguine huius.
{13:46} And he cried out with a loud voice, “I am clean of the blood of this one.”

{13:47} Et conversus omnis populus ad eum, dixit: Quis est iste sermo, quem tu locutus es?
{13:47} And all the people, turning back towards him, said, “What is this word that you are saying?”

{13:48} Qui cum staret in medio eorum, ait: Sic fatui filii Israel, non iudicantes, neque quod verum est cognoscentes, condemnastis filiam Israel?
{13:48} But he, while standing in the midst of them, said, “Are you so foolish, sons of Israel, that without judging and without knowing what the truth is, you have condemned a daughter of Israel?

{13:49} Revertimini ad iudicium, quia falsum testimonium locuti sunt adversus eam.
{13:49} Return to judgment, because they have spoken false witness against her.”

{13:50} Reversus est ergo populus cum festinatione, et dixerunt ei senes: Veni, et sede in medio nostrum, et indica nobis: quia tibi Deus dedit honorem senectutis.
{13:50} Therefore, the people returned with haste, and the old men said to him, “Come and sit down in our midst and show us, since God has given you the honor of old age.”

{13:51} Et dixit ad eos Daniel: Separate illos ab invicem procul, et diiudicabo eos.
{13:51} And Daniel said to them, “Separate these at a distance from one another, and I will judge between them.”

{13:52} Cum ergo divisi essent alter ab altero, vocavit unum de eis, et dixit ad eum: Inveterate dierum malorum, nunc venerunt peccata tua, quæ operabaris prius:
{13:52} And so, when they were divided, one from the other, he called one of them, and he said to him, “You deep-rooted ancient evil, now your sins have come out, which you have committed before,

~ “Inveterate dierum malorum” translates somewhat loosely as “deep-rooted ancient evil.” More literally, dierum means a long time, malorum means evil or harmful, and inveterate means to become old or to become rooted or to become hardened by age.

{13:53} iudicans iudicia iniusta, innocentes opprimens, et dimittens noxios, dicente Domino: Innocentem et iustum non interficies.
{13:53} judging unjust judgments, oppressing the innocent, and setting free the guilty, though the Lord declares, ‘The innocent and the just you must not put to death.’

{13:54} Nunc ergo si vidisti eam, dic sub qua arbore videris eos colloquentes sibi. Qui ait: Sub schino.
{13:54} Now then, if you saw her, declare under which tree you saw them conversing together.” He said, “Under an evergreen mastic tree.”

~ This tree is a short evergreen tree found in the Middle East. Notice that Daniel shows more discretion than the elders in the language he uses to describe sexual relations. He uses the more euphemistic and more discrete term “colloquentes sibi.” The term conversation was used by Flavius Josephus to denote sexual relations. It is an ancient euphemistic expression.

{13:55} Dixit autem Daniel: Recte mentitus es in caput tuum: Ecce enim Angelus Dei accepta sententia ab eo, scindet te medium.
{13:55} But Daniel said, “Truly, you have lied against your own head. For behold, the angel of God, having received the sentence from him, will split you down the middle.

{13:56} Et, amoto eo, iussit venire alium, et dixit ei: Semen Chanaan, et non Iuda, species decepit te, et concupiscentia subvertit cor tuum:
{13:56} And, having put him aside, he commanded the other to approach, and he said to him, “You offspring of Canaan, and not of Judah, beauty has deceived you, and desire has perverted your heart.

{13:57} sic faciebatis filiabus Israel, et illæ timentes loquebantur vobis: sed filia Iuda non sustinuit iniquitatem vestram.
{13:57} Thus did you do to the daughters of Israel, and they, out of fear, consorted with you, but a daughter of Judah would not tolerate your iniquity.

~ Again, Daniel uses a term referring to conversation, loquebantur, to refer to sexual relations. He does the same in the next verse also.

{13:58} Nunc ergo dic mihi, sub qua arbore comprehenderis eos loquentes sibi. Qui ait: Sub prino.
{13:58} Now then, declare to me, under which tree you caught them conversing together.” He said, “Under an evergreen oak tree.”

{13:59} Dixit autem ei Daniel: Recte mentitus es et tu in caput tuum: manet enim Angelus Domini, gladium habens, ut secet te medium, et interficiat vos.
{13:59} And Daniel said to him, “Truly, you also have lied against your own head. For the angel of the Lord waits, holding a sword, to cut you down the middle and put you to death.”

~ Note that “interficiat” refers to execution by authority and that “vos” is plural. Daniel is saying that God will execute both of these elders for their false testimony against Susanna.

{13:60} Exclamavit itaque omnis cœtus voce magna, et benedixerunt Deum, qui salvat sperantes in se.
{13:60} And then the entire assembly cried out in a loud voice, and they blessed God, who saves those who hope in him.

{13:61} Et consurrexerunt adversus duos presbyteros (convicerat enim eos Daniel ex ore suo falsum dixisse testimonium) feceruntque eis sicut male egerant adversus proximum,
{13:61} And they rose up against the two appointed elders, (for Daniel had convicted them, by their own mouth, of bearing false witness,) and they did to them just as they had wickedly done against their neighbor,

{13:62} ut facerent secundum legem Moysi: et interfecerunt eos, et salvatus est sanguis innoxius in die illa.
{13:62} so as to act according to the law of Moses. And they put them to death, and innocent blood was saved on that day.

{13:63} Helcias autem et uxor eius laudaverunt Deum pro filia sua Susanna cum Ioakim marito eius, et cognatis omnibus, quia non esset inventa in ea res turpis.
{13:63} But Hilkiah and his wife praised God for their daughter, Susanna, with Joakim, her husband, and all her relatives, because there had been found in her no disgrace.

{13:64} Daniel autem factus est magnus in conspectu populi a die illa, et deinceps.
{13:64} And so Daniel became great in the sight of the people from that day, and thereafter.

{13:65} Et rex Astyages appositus est ad patres suos, et suscepit Cyrus Perses regnum eius.
{13:65} And king Astyages was laid to rest with his fathers. And Cyrus the Persian received his kingdom.

[Daniel 14]

{14:1} Erat autem Daniel conviva regis, et honoratus super omnes amicos eius.
{14:1} And so Daniel was living with the king, and he was honored above all his friends.

{14:2} Erat quoque idolum apud Babylonios nomine Bel: et impendebantur in eo per dies singulos similæ artabæ duodecim, et oves quadraginta, vinique amphoræ sex.
{14:2} Now there was an idol with the Babylonians named Bel. And each day there was expended on him twelve great measures of fine flour, and forty sheep, and six vessels of wine.

~ Artabae is an Egyptian unit of measure equivalent to 3.5 Roman measures or about 7 gallons.

{14:3} Rex quoque colebat eum, et ibat per singulos dies adorare eum: porro Daniel adorabat Deum suum. Dixitque ei rex: Quare non adoras Bel?
{14:3} The king likewise worshipped him and went each day to adore him, but Daniel adored his God. And the king said to him, “Why do you not adore Bel?”

{14:4} Qui respondens, ait ei: Quia non colo idola manufacta, sed viventem Deum, qui creavit cælum, et terram, et habet potestatem omnis carnis.
{14:4} And answering, he said to him, “Because I do not worship idols made with hands, but the living God, who created heaven and earth, and who holds power over all flesh.”

{14:5} Et dixit rex ad eum: Non videtur tibi esse Bel vivens Deus? An non vides quanta comedat, et bibat quotidie?
{14:5} And the king said to him, “Does not Bel seem to you to be a living god? Do you not see how much he eats and drinks every day?”

{14:6} Et ait Daniel arridens: Ne erres rex: iste enim intrinsecus luteus est, et forinsecus æreus, neque comedit aliquando.
{14:6} Then Daniel said, smiling, “O king, do not make a mistake, for this one is clay on the inside and brass on the outside, and he has never eaten.”

{14:7} Et iratus rex vocavit sacerdotes eius, et ait eis: Nisi dixeritis mihi, quis est qui comedat impensas has, moriemini.
{14:7} And the king, being angry, called for his priests and said to them, “If you do not tell me who it is that has eaten these expenses, you will die.

{14:8} Si autem ostenderitis, quoniam Bel comedat hæc, morietur Daniel, quia blasphemavit in Bel. Et dixit Daniel regi: Fiat iuxta verbum tuum.
{14:8} But if you can show that Bel has eaten these, Daniel will die, because he has blasphemed against Bel.” And Daniel said to the king, “Let it be according to your word.”

~ Fiat means “let it be” or “let it be done” or “may it be done.” The form of the word is subjunctive, present tense.

{14:9} Erant autem sacerdotes Bel septuaginta, exceptis uxoribus, et parvulis, et filiis. Et venit rex cum Daniele in templum Bel.
{14:9} Now the priests of Bel were seventy, besides their wives, and little ones, and sons. And the king went with Daniel into the temple of Bel.

~ The word filiis literally means sons, but is sometimes used to refer to a group of children, including both boys and girls. The male term is used to denote both males and female, as in mankind (or man), or brethren, because men are intended by God to be leaders in the Church, the family, and society.

{14:10} Et dixerunt sacerdotes Bel: Ecce nos egredimur foras: et tu rex pone escas, et vinum misce, et claude ostium, et signa annulo tuo:
{14:10} And the priests of Bel said, “Behold, we are going out, and you, O king, set out the meats, and mix the wine, and close the door, and seal it with your ring.

~ The wine is most likely mixed with water. The use of the term “mix the wine” might seem strange, but in ancient times they mixed wine with water. The alcohol purified the water and the water prevented the wine from too easily causing drunkenness.

{14:11} et cum ingressus fueris mane, nisi inveneris omnia comesta a Bel, morte moriemur, vel Daniel qui mentitus est adversum nos.
{14:11} And when you have entered in the morning, if you have not found that Bel has consumed all, we will suffer death, or else Daniel will, who has lied against us.”

{14:12} Contemnebant autem, quia fecerant sub mensa absconditum introitum, et per illum ingrediebantur semper, et devorabant ea.
{14:12} But they had no concern because they had made a secret entrance under the table, and they always went in through it and devoured those things.

{14:13} Factum est igitur postquam egressi sunt illi, rex posuit cibos ante Bel: præcepit Daniel pueris suis, et attulerunt cinerem, et cribravit per totum templum coram rege: et egressi clauserunt ostium: et signantes annulo regis abierunt.
{14:13} And so it happened, after they had departed, that the king set the foods before Bel, and Daniel commanded his servants, and they brought ashes, and he sifted them throughout the temple in the sight of the king, and, as they left, they shut the door, and after sealing it with the king’s ring, they departed.

{14:14} Sacerdotes autem ingressi sunt nocte iuxta consuetudinem suam, et uxores et filii eorum: et comederunt omnia, et biberunt.
{14:14} But the priests entered by night, according to their custom, with their wives, and their sons, and they ate and drank everything.

{14:15} Surrexit autem rex primo diluculo, et Daniel cum eo.
{14:15} But the king arose at first light, and Daniel with him.

{14:16} Et ait rex: Salvane sunt signacula, Daniel? Qui respondit: Salva, rex.
{14:16} And the king said, “Are the seals unbroken, Daniel?” And he answered, “They are unbroken, O king.”

{14:17} Statimque cum aperuisset ostium, intuitus rex mensam, exclamavit voce magna: Magnus es Bel, et non est apud te dolus quisquam.
{14:17} And as soon as he had opened the door, the king stared at the table, and cried out with a loud voice, “Great are you, O Bel, and there is not any deceit with you.”

{14:18} Et risit Daniel: et tenuit regem ne ingrederetur intro: et dixit: Ecce pavimentum, animadverte cuius vestigia sint hæc.
{14:18} And Daniel laughed, and he held back the king, so that he would not enter, and he said, “Look at the pavement, notice whose footsteps these are.”

{14:19} Et dixit rex: Video vestigia virorum, et mulierum, et infantium. Et iratus est rex.
{14:19} And the king said, “I see the footsteps of men, and women, and children.” And the king was angry.

{14:20} Tunc apprehendit sacerdotes, et uxores, et filios eorum: et ostenderunt ei abscondita ostiola, per quæ ingrediebantur, et consumebant quæ erant super mensam.
{14:20} Then he apprehended the priests, and their wives, and their sons, and they showed him the secret doors through which they entered and consumed the things that were on the table.

{14:21} Occidit ergo illos rex, et tradidit Bel in potestatem Danielis: qui subvertit eum, et templum eius.
{14:21} Therefore, the king slaughtered them and delivered Bel into the power of Daniel, who overturned him and his temple.

~ The king “occidit,” that is, slaughtered them. He did not interfecit, put them to death by execution. In other words, the king did not give them a trial, nor send them to prison to await formal execution. He merely ordered their immediate deaths by his soldiers.

{14:22} Et erat draco magnus in loco illo, et colebant eum Babylonii.
{14:22} And there was a great dragon in that place, and the Babylonians worshipped him.

~ The word draco, dragon, can also mean snake. It most likely refers to some unusual type of animal kept by the Babylonians. This was not so unusual. The Roman leaders used to obtain and keep unusual animals from far off lands, including lions and other animals brought to Rome from Africa.

{14:23} Et dixit rex Danieli: Ecce nunc non potes dicere quia iste non sit Deus vivens: adora ergo eum.
{14:23} And the king said to Daniel, “Behold, now you cannot say that this is not a living god; therefore, adore him.”

{14:24} Dixitque Daniel: Dominum Deum meum adoro: quia ipse est Deus vivens: iste autem non est Deus vivens.
{14:24} And Daniel said, “I adore the Lord, my God, for he is the living God. But that one is not a living god.

{14:25} Tu autem rex da mihi potestatem, et interficiam draconem absque gladio, et fuste. Et ait rex: Do tibi.
{14:25} Therefore, you give me the power, O king, and I will execute this dragon without sword or club.” And the king said, “I give it to you.”

{14:26} Tulit ergo Daniel picem, et adipem, et pilos, et coxit pariter: fecitque massas, et dedit in os draconis, et diruptus est draco. Et dixit: Ecce quem colebatis.
{14:26} And so Daniel took pitch, and fat, and hair, and cooked them together. And he made lumps and put them into the dragon’s mouth, and the dragon burst open. And he said, “Behold, this is what you worship.”

{14:27} Quod cum audissent Babylonii, indignati sunt vehementer: et congregati adversum regem, dixerunt: Iudæus factus est rex: Bel destruxit, draconem interfecit, et sacerdotes occidit.
{14:27} When the Babylonians had heard this, they were greatly indignant. And gathering together against the king, they said, “The king has become a Jew. He has destroyed Bel, he has executed the dragon, and he has slaughtered the priests.”

~ The dragon’s death was an execution by authority (interfecit), whereas the priests where killed where they stood.

{14:28} Et dixerunt cum venissent ad regem: Trade nobis Danielem, alioquin interficiemus te, et domum tuam.
{14:28} And when they came to the king, they said, “Deliver Daniel to us, otherwise we will execute you and your house.”

~ An insurrection is threatened whereby the other leaders in the kingdom would rise up and take power, then put the king to death by a formal execution. They were not threatening merely to kill the king.

{14:29} Vidit ergo rex quod irruerent in eum vehementer: et necessitate compulsus tradidit eis Danielem.
{14:29} Thus the king saw that they pressured him vehemently, and so, being compelled by necessity, he delivered Daniel to them.

{14:30} Qui miserunt eum in lacum leonum, et erat ibi diebus sex.
{14:30} And they cast him into the den of lions, and he was there for six days.

{14:31} Porro in lacu erant leones septem, et dabantur eis duo corpora quotidie, et duæ oves: et tunc non data sunt eis, ut devorarent Danielem.
{14:31} Furthermore, in the den there were seven lions, and they had given to them two carcasses every day, and two sheep, but then they were not given to them, so that they would devour Daniel.

{14:32} Erat autem Habacuc propheta in Iudæa, et ipse coxerat pulmentum, et intriverat panes in alveolo: et ibat in campum ut ferret messoribus.
{14:32} Now there was in Judea a prophet called Habakkuk, and he had cooked a small meal and had broken bread in a bowl, and he was going into the field, to bring it to the harvesters.

{14:33} Dixitque Angelus Domini ad Habacuc: Fer prandium, quod habes, in Babylonem Danieli, qui est in lacu leonum.
{14:33} And the angel of the Lord said to Habakkuk, “Carry the meal that you have into Babylon, to Daniel, who is in the lions’ den.”

{14:34} Et dixit Habacuc: Domine, Babylonem non vidi, et lacum nescio.
{14:34} And Habakkuk said, “Lord, I have not seen Babylon, and I do not know the den.”

{14:35} Et apprehendit eum Angelus Domini in vertice eius, et portavit eum capillo capitis sui, posuitque eum in Babylone supra lacum in impetu spiritus sui.
{14:35} And the angel of the Lord seized him by the top of his head, and carried him by the hair of his head, and set him in Babylon, over the den, by the force of his spirit.

{14:36} Et clamavit Habacuc, dicens: Daniel serve Dei, tolle prandium, quod misit tibi Deus.
{14:36} And Habakkuk shouted, saying, “Daniel, servant of God, take the dinner that God has sent you.”

{14:37} Et ait Daniel: Recordatus es mei Deus, et non dereliquisti diligentes te.
{14:37} And Daniel said, “You have remembered me, O God, and you have not abandoned those who love you.”

{14:38} Surgensque Daniel comedit. Porro Angelus Domini restituit Habacuc confestim in loco suo.
{14:38} And Daniel arose and ate. And then the angel of the Lord immediately returned Habakkuk to his place.

{14:39} Venit ergo rex die septimo ut lugeret Danielem: et venit ad lacum, et introspexit, et ecce Daniel sedens in medio leonum.
{14:39} And so, on the seventh day, the king came to mourn Daniel. And he came to the den, and gazed in, and behold, Daniel was sitting in the midst of the lions.

{14:40} Et exclamavit voce magna rex, dicens: Magnus es Domine Deus Danielis. Et extraxit eum de lacu leonum.
{14:40} And the king cried out with a loud voice, saying, “Great are you, O Lord, the God of Daniel.” And he pulled him out of the lions’ den.

{14:41} Porro illos, qui perditionis eius causa fuerant, intromisit in lacum, et devorati sunt in momento coram eo.
{14:41} Furthermore, those who had been the cause of his downfall, he hurled into the den, and they were devoured in a moment before him.

{14:42} Tunc rex ait: Paveant omnes habitantes in universa terra Deum Danielis: quia ipse est Salvator, faciens signa, et mirabilia in terra: qui liberavit Danielem de lacu leonum.
{14:42} Then the king said, “Let all the inhabitants of the whole earth fear the God of Daniel. For he is the Savior, working signs and miracles on earth, who has freed Daniel from the lions’ den.”

~ The word mirabilia means wonders or miracles.

The Sacred BibleThe Prophecy of Daniel